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Listed 100 (total found 148) sub titles with search on: History for destination: "EVRYTANIA Prefecture GREECE".


History (148)

Miscellaneous

  Skyros is known throughout Greece’s history, beginning with mythology, when Theseus was killed on Skyros. Achilles was hidden here in king Lycomides’ court, then was discovered by Odysseus and consequently left to fight at Troy. As proven by the excavations at Palamari, Skyros was a trade centre in the Copper Age (2500-1800 BC). In 470 B.C. the Athenian general Kimon captured the island, driving away the Dolopian pirates who had used Skyros as a base for their attacks and he brought Athenian settlers to the island. Later, Skyros fell into the bands of the Macedonians from 332-196 B.C., when it then returned to Athenian control. During the Roman occupation of Greece Skyros was enlisted in the "Aegean Sea Theme" being used as an exile base for powerful enemies. In the beginning of the 13th century A.D. Skyros came under the command of the Northern Italians (Venetians) and in 1538 was conquered by the Turkish commander Barbarossa. Skyros was active in the revolution of 1821 and was used as a hiding-place for revolutionaries.
This text (extract) is cited July 2003 from the Municipality of Skyros tourist pamphlet (1996).


Alliances

DELFI (Ancient sanctuary) FOKIDA

Amphictyonic League (Amphictyones, Amphictyons)

  Amphictyones (Amphiktuones). Literally "those dwelling around", but in a special sense applied to populations which at stated times met at the same sanctuary to keep a festival in common, and to transact common business. The most famous and extensive union of the kind was that called, par excellence, the Amphictyonic League, whose common sanctuaries were the temple of Pythian Apollo at Delphi, and the temple of Demeter at Anthela, near Pylae or Thermopylae. After Pylae the assembly was named the Pylaean, even when it met at Delphi, and the deputies of the league Pylagorae. The league was supposed to be very ancient, as old even as the name of Hellenes; for its founder was said to be Amphictyon, the son of Deucalion and brother of Hellen, the common ancestor of all Hellenes. ( Herod.vii. 200.) It included twelve populations: Malians, Phthians, Aenianes or Oetoeans, Dolopes, Magnetians, Perrhoebians, Thessalians, Locrians, Dorians, Phocians, Boeotians, and Ionians, together with the colonies of each. Though in later times their extent and power were very unequal, yet in point of law they all had equal rights. Besides protecting and preserving those two sanctuaries, and celebrating from the year B.C. 586 on wards the Pythian Games, the league was bound to maintain certain principles of international right, which forbade them, for instance, ever to destroy utterly any city of the league, or to cut off its water, even in time of war. To the assemblies, which met every spring and autumn, each nation sent two hieromnemones (= wardens of holy things) and several pylagorae. The latter took part in the debates, but only the former had the right of voting. When a nation included several States, these took by turns the privilege of sending deputies. But the stronger states, such as the Ionian Athens or the Dorian Sparta, were probably allowed to take their turn oftener than the rest, or even to send to every assembly. When violations of the sanctuaries or of popular right took place the assembly could inflict fines, or even expulsion; and a State that would not submit to the punishment had a "holy war" (or Sacred War) declared against it. By such a war the Phocians were expelled B.C. 346, and their two votes given to the Macedonians; but the expulsion of the former was withdrawn because of the glorious part they took in defending the Delphian temple when threatened by the Gauls in B.C. 279, and at the same time the Aetolian community, which had already made itself master of the sanctuary, was acknowledged as a new member of the league. In B.C. 191 the number of members amounted to seventeen, who nevertheless had only twenty-four votes, seven having two votes each, the rest only one. Under the Roman rule the league continued to exist, but its action was now limited to the care of the Delphian temple. It was reorganized by Augustus, who incorporated the Malians, Magnetians, Aenianes, and Pythians with the Thessalians, and substituted for the extinct Dolopes the city of Nicopolis in Acarnania, which he had founded after the battle of Actium. The last notice we find of the league is in the second century A.D.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2003 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


VIOTIA (Ancient area) GREECE

Boeotian league & Boeotarchs (Boeotarches)

Boeotarches (Boiotarches). The Boeotians in ancient times occupied Arne in Thessaly ( Thuc.i. 12). Sixty years after the taking of Troy they were expelled by the Thessalians, and settled in the country then called Cadmeis, but afterwards Boeotia. The leader of the Boeotians was King Opheltas. It would seem that their kings ruled the whole country from Thebes. Later on, the country was divided into several States, containing each a principal city, with its allies and dependants. The number and names of these independent States are differently given by different writers on the subject; we know, however, for certain that they formed a confederacy called the Boeotian League, with Thebes at its head, and Freeman is of opinion that the political union grew out of an older Amphictyony. Common sanctuaries were the temple of the Itonian Athene near Coronea, where the Pamboeotia were celebrated, and the Temple of Poseidon in Onchestus. Thucydides (iv. 93) mentions seven independent States: Thebes, Haliartus, Coronea, Copae, Thespiae, Tanagra, and Orchomenus; and we learn from inscriptions that, at one time or other, the following belonged to the same class: Anthedon, Lebadea, Hyettus, Acraephia, Chorsia (or Korsia, Demosth. F. L. 141, etc.), Thisbe, Chaeronea. O. Muller (Orchom. p. 403) supposes there were originally fourteen free States. Probably the number differed at different times. Each of the principal towns of Boeotia seems to have had its demos and boule. The boule was presided over by an archon, who probably had succeeded to the priestly functions of the old kings, but possessed little, if any, executive authority. The polemarchs, who, in treaties and agreements, are mentioned next to the archon, had some executive authority, but did not command forces--e. g. they could imprison, and they directed the levies of troops. But, besides the archon of each separate State, there was an archon of the confederacy --archon en koinoi Boioton--most probably always a Theban. His name was affixed to all alliances and compacts which concerned the whole confederacy, and he was president of what Thucydides calls the four councils, who directed the affairs of the league (hapan to kuros echousi). On important questions they seem to have been united; for the same author speaks of them as he boule, and informs us that the determinations of the Boeotarchs required the ratification of this body before they were valid. We may now explain who these Boeotarchs were. They were properly the military heads of the confederacy, chosen by the different States; but we also find them discharging the functions of an executive in various matters. In fact, they are represented by Thucydides as forming an alliance with foreign States; as receiving ambassadors on their return home; as negotiating with envoys from other countries, and acting as the representatives of the whole league, though the boule refused to sanction the measures they had resolved on in the particular case to which we are now alluding. Another instance in which the Boeotarchs appear as executive is their interference with Agesilaus, on his embarking from Aulis for Asia (B.C. 396), when they prevented him offering sacrifice as he wished. Still, the principal duty of the Boeotarchs was of a military nature: thus, they led into the field the troops of their respective States; and when at home they took whatever measures were requisite to forward the military operations of the league or of their own State. For example, we read of one of the Theban Boeotarchs ordering the Thebans to come in arms to the ecclesia for the purpose of being ready to attack Plataea. Each State of the confederacy elected one Boeotarch, the Thebans two, although on one occasion--i. e. after the return of the exiles with Pelopidas (B.C. 379)--we read of there being three at Thebes. The total number from the whole confederacy varied with the number of the independent States. Mention is made of the Boeotarchs by Thucydides, in connection with the battle of Delium (B.C. 424). There is, however, a difference of opinion with respect to his meaning: some understand him to speak of eleven, some of twelve, and others of thirteen Boeotarchs. Dr. Arnold is disposed to adopt the last number; and we think the context is in favour of the opinion that there were then thirteen Boeotarchs, so that the number of free States was twelve. At the time of the battle of Leuctra (B.C. 371), we find seven Boeotarchs mentioned; on another occasion, when Greece was invaded by the Gauls (B.C. 279), we read of four. Livy states that there were twelve, but before the time (B.C. 171) to which his statement refers Plataea had been reunited to the league. Still the number mentioned in any case is no test of the actual number, inasmuch as we are not sure that all the Boeotarchs were sent out by their respective states on every expedition or to every battle.
  The Boeotarchs, when engaged in military service, formed a council of war, the decisions of which were determined on by a majority of votes, the president being one of the two Theban Boeotarchs who commanded alternately. Their period of service was a year, beginning about the winter solstice; and whoever continued in office longer than his time was punishable with death both at Thebes and in other cities. Epaminondas and Pelopidas did so on their invasion of Laconia (B.C. 369), but their eminent services saved them; in fact, the judges did not even come to a vote respecting the former (oude archen peri autou thesthai ten psephon). At the expiration of the year, a Boeotarch was eligible to office a second time, and Pelopidas was repeatedly chosen. From the case of Epaminondas and Pelopidas, who were brought before Theban judges (dikastai) for transgression of the law which limited the time of office, we may conclude that each Boeotarch was responsible to his own State alone, and not to the general body of the four councils.
  Mention is made by Livy of an election of Boeotarchs. He further informs us that the league (concilium) was broken up by the Romans B.C. 171. Still, it must have been partially revived, as we are told of a second breaking-up by the Romans after the destruction of Corinth, B.C. 146.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2003 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Antiquity

THERMOPYLES (Historic place) LAMIA

Amphictionic League

League of ancient states: Thessalians, Locrians, Phocians, Boeotians, Athenians, Dorians, Malians, Dolopians, Enianes, Perrhaebias, Magnetes, and Macedonians. The league supporting the god Apollo estabilished a conduct for war among members. The council had two annual meetings, the spring in Delphi and the autumn in Thermopyles.


Battles

ALIARTOS (Ancient city) VIOTIA

At the walls of the town, in 395 BC

For having attacked the walls of Haliartus, in which were troops from Thebes and Athens, Lysander fell in the fighting that followed a sortie of the enemy (Paus. 9,32,5).


AVES (Ancient city) ATALANTI

Boeotians against Phocians

As the Phocians were engaged in building a fortress near the place named Abae, at which is a holy shrine of Apollo, the Boeotians took the field against them. Some of the Phocians straightway fled to the nearest cities and dispersed, while others took refuge in the temple of Apollo and perished to the number of five hundred. [5] Now many other divine visitations fell to the lot of the Phocians about this period, and in particular the one that I am about to relate. The men who had taken refuge in the temple supposed that their lives would be saved through the intervention of the gods, but on the contrary through some divine Providence they met with the punishment temple-robbers well deserve.
For there was a quantity of rushes about the temple, and a fire had been left behind in the tents of the men who had fled, with the result that the rushes caught fire and such a great conflagration was touched off so miraculously that the temple was consumed and the Phocians who had fled to it for refuge were burned alive. Indeed it became apparent that the gods do not extend to temple-robbers the protection generally accorded to suppliants (Diod. Sic. 16.58.4-6).

This extract is from: Diodorus Siculus, Library (ed. C. H. Oldfather, 1989). Cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.


CHERONIA (Ancient city) VIOTIA

The Battle of Chaeronea, 338 B.C.

In this battle, Philip II Macedon defeated the rest of the Greeks.


The Aftermath of the Battle of Chaeronea

The course of later history proved the battle of Chaeronea in 338, in which Philip of Macedon and his Greek allies defeated a coalition of other Greek states, to have been a decisive turning point in Greek history: never again would the states of Greece make foreign policy for themselves without considering, and usually following, the wishes of outside powers. This change marked the end of the Greek city-states as independent actors in international politics, but they were to retain their significance as the basic economic and social units of the Greek world. But that role would be fulfilled from now on as subjects or allies of the new kingdoms that later emerged from the Macedonian kingdom of Philip and his son Alexander after the latter's death in 323 B.C. The Hellenistic kingdoms, as these new monarchies are called, like the Roman provinces that in turn eventually replaced them as political masters of the Greeks, depended on the local leaders of the Greek city-states to collect taxes for the imperial treasuries and to insure the loyalty and order of the rest of the citizens.

This text is from: Thomas Martin's An Overview of Classical Greek History from Homer to Alexander, Yale University Press. Cited Jan 2003 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


DELION (Ancient city) VIOTIA

Battle of Delium, 424 BC

The Thebans won a victory over the Athenians at Delium in the territory of Tanagra, where the Athenian general Hippocrates, son of Ariphron, perished with the greater part of the army. In a battle here Socrates saved Alcibiades.


EGITION (Ancient city) FOKIDA

Battle of Aegition, 426 BC

Thucydides, The Peloponnesian War (3.97.1)


ETEONOS (Ancient city) THIVES

Battle of Scarpheia, 279 BC.

Achaeans of Critolaous defeated by Romans (Paus. 7,15,3-9).


FOKIS (Ancient area) GREECE

Phoceans victory over Thessalians

The Thessalians and their allies had invaded Phocis with their whole army but had been worsted and roughly handled by the Phocians. When the Phocians were besieged on Parnassus, they had with them the diviner Tellias of Elis; Tellias devised a stratagem for them: he covered six hundred of the bravest Phocians with gypsum, themselves and their armor, and led them to attack the Thessalians by night, bidding them slay whomever they should see not whitened. The Thessalian sentinels were the first to see these men and to flee for fear, supposing falsely that it was something supernatural, and after the sentinels the whole army fled as well. The Phocians made themselves masters of four thousand dead, and their shields, of which they dedicated half at Abae and the rest at Delphi. A tithe of what they won in that fight went to the making of the great statues that stand around the tripod in front of the shrine at Delphi, and there are others like them dedicated at Abae.

This extract is from: Herodotus, The Histories, ed. A. D. Godley, Cambridge. Harvard University Press
Cited Sept. 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.


KORONIA (Ancient city) VIOTIA

Battle of Coronea, 394 BC

Agesilaus put the Thessalian cavalry to flight and passed through Thessaly, and again made his way through Boeotia, winning a victory over Thebes and the allies at Coronea. When the Boeotians were put to flight, certain of them took refuge in the sanctuary of Athena surnamed Itonia. Agesilaus, although suffering from a wound received in the battle, did not sin against the suppliants.


LEFKTRA (Ancient city) VIOTIA

ORCHOMENOS (Archaeological site) VIOTIA

Boetians & Phocians (Sacred War)

Phayllus with his army carried the campaign into Boeotia, and, suffering defeat near the city of Orchomenus, lost a great number of men. Later in another battle that took place by the Cephisus River the Boeotians won again and slew over five hundred of the enemy and took no fewer than four hundred prisoners
Editor's note: All information about The Sacred War at Ancient Delphi


PLATEES (Ancient city) VIOTIA

TEGYRA (Ancient city) ORCHOMENOS

Battle of Tegyra, 375 BC

Battle of Tegyra. First time Spartans defeated in pitched battle. Victory for both Pelopidas and Thebes


THERMOPYLES (Historic place) LAMIA

The Hellenes army list at Thermopylae

The Hellenes who awaited the Persians in that place were these: three hundred Spartan armed men; one thousand from Tegea and Mantinea, half from each place; one hundred and twenty from Orchomenus in Arcadia and one thousand from the rest of Arcadia; that many Arcadians, four hundred from Corinth, two hundred from Phlius, and eighty Mycenaeans. These were the Peloponnesians present; from Boeotia there were seven hundred Thespians and four hundred Thebans.
This extract is from: Herodotus, The Histories, ed. A. D. Godley, Cambridge. Harvard University Press
Cited Aug 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.


The battle of Thermopylae, 480 BC.


THESPIES (Ancient city) VIOTIA

With the Thebans

Subsequently the Athenians returned home, and the Thebans assailed Thespiae but were unsuccessful in their attack.


Benefactors of the place

THIVES (Ancient city) VIOTIA

Cassander, 316 BC

Son of Antipater, brother of Plistarchus, husband of Thessalonice, daughter of Philip, at war with Athens, invades Attica, captures Salamis, makes Demetrius tyrant of Athens, murders Olympias, poisons sons of Alexander, restores Potidaeans, restores Thebes, attacks Pyrrhus, joins in war against Antigonus, besieges Elatea, instigates Lachares to make himself tyrant of Athens, brings Greece low, his miserable end, his sons, his family extirpated by deity.


Catastrophes of the place

ALES (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

ALIARTOS (Ancient city) VIOTIA

By the Persians, 480 B.C.

At the Persian invasion the people of Haliartus sided with the Greeks, and so a division of the army of Xerxes overran and burnt both their territory and their city (Paus. 9.32.5).


AMFIKLIA (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

By Xerxes, 480 BC

The army of Xerxes, burning down certain of these, made them better known in Greece, namely Erochus, Charadra, Amphicleia, Neon, Tithronium and Drymaea.


The barbarians. . .overran the whole of Phocis. All that came within their power they laid waste to and burnt, setting fire to towns and temples. Marching this way down the river Cephisus, they ravaged everything that lay in their way, burning the towns of Drymus, Charadra, Erochus, Tethronium, Amphicaea, Neon, Pediea, Tritea, Elatea, Hyampolis, Parapotamii, and Abae . . .
This extract is from: Pausanias Description of Greece with an English Translation by W.H.S. Jones, Litt.D., and H.A. Ormerod, M.A., Harvard University Press. Cited Aug 2002 from Perseus Project URL bellow, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks


AMFISSA (Ancient city) PARNASSOS

By the Amphictyons

Now Anticyra still endures, but Cirrha and Crisa have been destroyed, the former earlier, by the Crisaeans, and Crisa itself later, by Eurylochus the Thessalian, at the time of the Crisaean War. For the Crisaeans, already prosperous because of the duties levied on importations from Sicily and Italy, proceeded to impose harsh taxes on those who came to visit the temple, even contrary to the decrees of the Amphictyons. And the same thing also happened in the case of the Amphissians, who belonged to the Ozolian Locrians. For these too, coming over, not only restored Crisa and proceeded to put under cultivation again the plain which had been consecrated by the Amphictyons, but were worse in their dealings with foreigners than the Crisaeans of old had been. Accordingly, the Amphictyons punished these too, and gave the territory back to the god.

This extract is from: The Geography of Strabo (ed. H. L. Jones, 1924), Cambridge. Harvard University Press. Cited Sep 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.


ANTIKYRA (Ancient city) VIOTIA

By Philip II, 346 BC

In the tenth year after the seizure of the sanctuary, Philip put an end to the war, which was called both the Phocian War and the Sacred War, in the year when Theophilus was archon at Athens, which was the first of the hundred and eighth Olympiad at which Polycles of Cyrene was victorious in the foot-race. The cities of Phocis were captured and razed to the ground. The tale of them was Lilaea, Hyampolis, Anticyra, Parapotamii, Panopeus and Daulis. These cities were distinguished in days of old, especially because of the poetry of Homer.
The army of Xerxes, burning down certain of these, made them better known in Greece, namely Erochus, Charadra, Amphicleia, Neon, Tithronium and Drymaea. The rest of the Phocian cities, except Elateia, were not famous in former times, I mean Phocian Trachis, Phocian Medeon, Echedameia, Ambrossus, Ledon, Phlygonium and Stiris. On the occasion to which I have referred all the cities enumerated were razed to the ground and their people scattered in villages (Paus. 10,3,1-2).

This extract is from: Pausanias. Description of Greece (ed. W.H.S. Jones, Litt.D., & H.A. Ormerod, 1918). Cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.


By the Romans under Otilius, 211 BC

Otilius carried out his orders up to a point, but displeased the Romans in certain of his acts. Hestiaea in Euboea and Anticyra in Phocis, which had been compelled to submit to Philip, he utterly destroyed. It was, I think, for this reason that the senate, when they heard the news, sent Flamininus to succeed Otilius in his command.


AVES (Ancient city) ATALANTI

By Xerxes, 480 BC

The barbarians. . .overran the whole of Phocis. All that came within their power they laid waste to and burnt, setting fire to towns and temples. Marching this way down the river Cephisus, they ravaged everything that lay in their way, burning the towns of Drymus, Charadra, Erochus, Tethronium, Amphicaea, Neon, Pediea, Tritea, Elatea, Hyampolis, Parapotamii, and Abae, where there was a richly endowed temple of Apollo, provided with wealth of treasure and offerings. There was also then as now a place of divination at this place. This temple, too, they plundered and burnt, and they pursued and caught some of the Phocians near the mountains. Certain women too perished because of the multitude of their violators.

This extract is from: Herodotus. The Histories (ed. A. D. Godley, 1920), Cambridge. Harvard University Press. Cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.


CHARADRA (Ancient city) PARNASSOS

By Xerxes

The army of Xerxes, burning down certain of these, made them better known in Greece, namely Erochus, Charadra, Amphicleia, Neon, Tithronium and Drymaea (Paus. 10,3,2).


The barbarians, while the Thessalians so guided their army, overran the whole of Phocis. All that came within their power they laid waste to and burnt, setting fire to towns and temples.
Marching this way down the river Cephisus, they ravaged everything that lay in their way, burning the towns of Drymus, Charadra, Erochus, Tethronium, Amphicaea, Neon, Pediea, Tritea, Elatea, Hyampolis, Parapotamii, and Abae, where there was a richly endowed temple of Apollo, provided with wealth of treasure and offerings (Hdt. 8.32.2, 8,33,1).

This extract is from: Herodotus, The Histories, ed. A. D. Godley, Cambridge. Harvard University Press
Cited Sept. 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.


DAVLIS (Ancient city) VIOTIA

Xerxes, 480 BC

The barbarians. . .overran the whole of Phocis. All that came within their power they laid waste to and burnt, setting fire to towns and temples. Marching this way down the river Cephisus, they ravaged everything that lay in their way, burning the towns of Drymus, Charadra, Erochus, Tethronium, Amphicaea, Neon, Pediea, Tritea, Elatea, Hyampolis, Parapotamii, and Abae . .


By Philip II, 346 BC

Philip put an end to the war, which was called both the Phocian War and the Sacred War . . .The cities of Phocis were captured and razed to the ground. . .and their people scattered in villages.


DRYMEA (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

By Xerxes, 480 BC

The army of Xerxes, burning down certain of these, made them better known in Greece, namely Erochus, Charadra, Amphicleia, Neon, Tithronium and Drymaea (Paus. 10,3,2).


The barbarians. . .overran the whole of Phocis. All that came within their power they laid waste to and burnt, setting fire to towns and temples. Marching this way down the river Cephisus, they ravaged everything that lay in their way, burning the towns of Drymus, Charadra, Erochus, Tethronium, Amphicaea, Neon, Pediea, Tritea, Elatea, Hyampolis, Parapotamii, and Abae . . .
This extract is from: Pausanias Description of Greece with an English Translation by W.H.S. Jones, Litt.D., and H.A. Ormerod, M.A., Harvard University Press. Cited Aug 2002 from Perseus Project URL bellow, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks


By Philip II, 346 BC

Philip put an end to the war, which was called both the Phocian War and the Sacred War . . .The cities of Phocis were captured and razed to the ground. . .and their people scattered in villages.


ELATIA (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

By Xerxes, 480 BC

The army of Xerxes, burning down certain of these, made them better known in Greece, namely Erochus, Charadra, Amphicleia, Neon, Tithronium and Drymaea.


The barbarians. . .overran the whole of Phocis. All that came within their power they laid waste to and burnt, setting fire to towns and temples. Marching this way down the river Cephisus, they ravaged everything that lay in their way, burning the towns of Drymus, Charadra, Erochus, Tethronium, Amphicaea, Neon, Pediea, Tritea, Elatea, Hyampolis, Parapotamii, and Abae . . .
This extract is from: Pausanias Description of Greece with an English Translation by W.H.S. Jones, Litt.D., and H.A. Ormerod, M.A., Harvard University Press. Cited Aug 2002 from Perseus Project URL bellow, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks


By Philip II, 346 BC

Philip put an end to the war, which was called both the Phocian War and the Sacred War . . .The cities of Phocis were captured and razed to the ground. . .and their people scattered in villages.


ERETRIA (Ancient city) EVIA

By Medes under Datis, 490 BC.

Datis, with his many myriads, captured by force the whole of the Eretrians; and to Athens he sent on an alarming account of how not a man of the Eretrians had escaped him: the soldiers of Datis had joined hands and swept the whole of Eretria clean as with a draw net. (Plato, Laws 698c). When Datis and Artaphrenes reached Asia in their voyage, they carried the enslaved Eretrians inland to Susa. (Herodt 6.119.1)


By the Romans under Flamininus

On his arrival Flamininus sacked Eretria, defeating the Macedonians who were defending it.


EROCHOS (Ancient city) PARNASSOS

By Xerxes

The army of Xerxes, burning down certain of these, made them better known in Greece, namely Erochus, Charadra, Amphicleia, Neon, Tithronium and Drymaea.


The barbarians, while the Thessalians so guided their army, overran the whole of Phocis. All that came within their power they laid waste to and burnt, setting fire to towns and temples.
Marching this way down the river Cephisus, they ravaged everything that lay in their way, burning the towns of Drymus, Charadra, Erochus, Tethronium, Amphicaea, Neon, Pediea, Tritea, Elatea, Hyampolis, Parapotamii, and Abae, where there was a richly endowed temple of Apollo, provided with wealth of treasure and offerings (Strab. 8,32,2-8,33,1).

This extract is from: The Geography of Strabo, ed. H. L. Jones, Cambridge. Harvard University Press
Cited Sept. 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.


ISTIEA (Ancient city) EVIA

By Perikles of Athens, 446 BC


By Romans under Otilius, 211 BC

Otilius carried out his orders up to a point, but displeased the Romans in certain of his acts. Hestiaea in Euboea and Anticyra in Phocis, which had been compelled to submit to Philip, he utterly destroyed. It was, I think, for this reason that the senate, when they heard the news, sent Flamininus to succeed Otilius in his command.


KOPES (Ancient city) THIVES

By Xerxes, 480 BC


By the Romans, 171 BC


LARYMNA (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

LILEA (Ancient city) PARNASSOS

By Philip II, 346 B.C.

In the tenth year after the seizure of the sanctuary, Philip put an end to the war, which was called both the Phocian War and the Sacred War, in the year when Theophilus was archon at Athens, which was the first of the hundred and eighth Olympiad at which Polycles of Cyrene was victorious in the foot-race. The cities of Phocis were captured and razed to the ground. The tale of them was Lilaea, Hyampolis, Anticyra, Parapotamii, Panopeus and Daulis. These cities were distinguished in days of old, especially because of the poetry of Homer.
The army of Xerxes, burning down certain of these, made them better known in Greece, namely Erochus, Charadra, Amphicleia, Neon, Tithronium and Drymaea. The rest of the Phocian cities, except Elateia, were not famous in former times, I mean Phocian Trachis, Phocian Medeon, Echedameia, Ambrossus, Ledon, Phlygonium and Stiris. On the occasion to which I have referred all the cities enumerated were razed to the ground and their people scattered in villages.

This extract is from: Pausanias Description of Greece with an English Translation by W.H.S. Jones, Litt.D., and H.A. Ormerod, M.A., in 4 Volumes. Harvard University Press
Cited Sept. 2002 from Perseus Project URL bellow, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.


OGCHISTOS (Ancient city) VIOTIA

By Persians under Xerxes


ORCHOMENOS (Archaeological site) VIOTIA

By the Thebans, 371 BC

After its defeat at the battle of Leuctra, the town was destroyed by the Thebans.


By Syllas, 86 BC

After the battle of Chaeronia the war between Syllas and Mithridates was not over. Another battle took place at Orchomenus, where Mithridates had taken shelter. Syllas won that battle too and after his victory he ransacked Orchomenus and the nearby towns and destroyed the harbours of Boeotia (Ekd. Athinon, Pausaniou Periegissis, vol. 5, p. 190, note 1).


OROVIES (Ancient city) EVIA

Earthquakes, 426 BC

About the same time that these earthquakes were so common, the sea at Orobiae, in Euboea, retiring from the then line of coast, returned in a huge wave and invaded a great part of the town, and retreated leaving some of it still under water; so that what was once land is now sea; such of the inhabitants perishing as could not run up to the higher ground in time.


    PANOPEFS (Ancient city) CHERONIA

    By Xerxes, 480 BC

    The barbarians. . .overran the whole of Phocis. All that came within their power they laid waste to and burnt, setting fire to towns and temples. Marching this way down the river Cephisus, they ravaged everything that lay in their way, burning the towns of Drymus, Charadra, Erochus, Tethronium, Amphicaea, Neon, Pediea, Tritea, Elatea, Hyampolis, Parapotamii, and Abae . . (8,32,1)
    So this part of the barbarian army marched as I have said, and others set forth with guides for the temple at Delphi, keeping Parnassus on their right. These, too, laid waste to every part of Phocis which they occupied, burning the towns of the Panopeans and Daulii and Aeolidae.(8.35.1)
    This extract is from: Herodotus, with an English translation by A. D. Godley. Cambridge. Harvard University Press
    Cited Sept 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.


    By Philip II, 346 BC

    Philip put an end to the war, which was called both the Phocian War and the Sacred War . . .The cities of Phocis were captured and razed to the ground. . .and their people scattered in villages.


    PARAPOTAMII (Ancient city) CHERONIA

    By Xerxes, 480 BC

    The barbarians. . .overran the whole of Phocis. All that came within their power they laid waste to and burnt, setting fire to towns and temples. Marching this way down the river Cephisus, they ravaged everything that lay in their way, burning the towns of Drymus, Charadra, Erochus, Tethronium, Amphicaea, Neon, Pediea, Tritea, Elatea, Hyampolis, Parapotamii, and Abae . . .

    This extract is from: Herodotus. The Histories (ed. A. D. Godley, 1920), Cambridge. Harvard University Press. Cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.


    PLATEES (Ancient city) VIOTIA

    Thebans and Spartans, 427 BC

    For in the war between the Peloponnesians and Athens, the Lacedaemonians reduced Plataea by siege, but it was restored during the peace made by the Spartan Antalcidas between the Persians and the Greeks, and the Plataeans returned from Athens.


    Thebans, 373 BC

    The second capture of Plataea occurred two years before the battle of Leuctra,2 when Asteius was Archon at Athens. The Thebans destroyed all the city except the sanctuaries, but the method of its capture saved the lives of all the Plataeans alike, and on their expulsion they were again received by the Athenians. When Philip after his victory at Chaeroneia introduced a garrison into Thebes, one of the means he employed to bring the Thebans low was to restore the Plataeans to their homes.


    By the Athenians under Kimon (474-473 B.C.)

    The inhabitants of Skyros were enslaved and their land was apportioned to Athenian settlers.


    STIRIS (Ancient city) DISTOMO

    By Philip II, 346 BC

    Philip put an end to the war, which was called both the Phocian War and the Sacred War . . .The cities of Phocis were captured and razed to the ground. . .and their people scattered in villages.


    STYRA (Ancient city) EVIA

    Malian war by Phaedrus (4th c. B.C.)

    Styra was destroyed in the Malian war by Phaedrus, the general of the Athenians; but the country is held by the Eretrians.


    THESPIES (Ancient city) VIOTIA

    By Xerxes

    Because only Thespians and Plataeis among Boeotians have not go over to the Medes.


    By the Thebans after the battle at Leuctra, 371 BC

    Thereupon the Thebans, having razed Plataeae completely, pillaged Thespiae as well, which was at odds with them. The Plataeans with their wives and children, having fled to Athens, received equality of civic rights as a mark of favour from the Athenian people.


    THIVES (Ancient city) VIOTIA

    Alexander the Great, 335 BC

    He seized the town and dug it up killing 6 thousand and capturing more than 30 thousand inhabitants. The reason for this was that after Philip's death they had sent away the Macedonian Guard that had settled to Thebes after the defeat at Chaeronea. The Thebans that survived went to Athens as refugees until 316 BC, when Cassander repatriated them.


    Syllas, 86 BC

    After the defeat of Archelaus, the Greek general of Mithridates at Chaeronia in 86 BC, the Thebans took Mithridates’ part at the war against Rome. For that reason Syllas destroyed the town, pillaged the whole Boeotia and gave half of the Theban land to the sanctuary at Delphi, in return for its treasures that had been spoiled. From that point on Thebes started to decline and at Pausanias’ time one could only see the temples of the town and only the acropolis was inhabited, having changed its name from Kadmea to Thebes, after the town.


    TITHOREA (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

    By Xerxes

    The army of Xerxes, burning down certain of these, made them better known in Greece, namely Erochus, Charadra, Amphicleia, Neon, Tithronium and Drymaea.
    This extract is from: The Geography of Strabo, ed. H. L. Jones, Cambridge. Harvard University Press
    Cited Sept. 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks


    The barbarians. . .overran the whole of Phocis. All that came within their power they laid waste to and burnt, setting fire to towns and temples. Marching this way down the river Cephisus, they ravaged everything that lay in their way, burning the towns of Drymus, Charadra, Erochus, Tethronium, Amphicaea, Neon, Pediea, Tritea, Elatea, Hyampolis, Parapotamii, and Abae . . .
    This extract is from: Pausanias Description of Greece with an English Translation by W.H.S. Jones, Litt.D., and H.A. Ormerod, M.A., Harvard University Press. Cited Aug 2002 from Perseus Project URL bellow, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks


    By Philip II, 346 BC

    Philip put an end to the war, which was called both the Phocian War and the Sacred War . . .The cities of Phocis were captured and razed to the ground. . .and their people scattered in villages.


    TITHRONION (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

    By Xerxes

    The army of Xerxes, burning down certain of these, made them better known in Greece, namely Erochus, Charadra, Amphicleia, Neon, Tithronium and Drymaea (Paus. 10,3,2).


    The barbarians, while the Thessalians so guided their army, overran the whole of Phocis. All that came within their power they laid waste to and burnt, setting fire to towns and temples (Hdt. 8,32,2).
    Marching this way down the river Cephisus, they ravaged everything that lay in their way, burning the towns of Drymus, Charadra, Erochus, Tethronium, Amphicaea, Neon, Pediea, Tritea, Elatea, Hyampolis, Parapotamii, and Abae, where there was a richly endowed temple of Apollo, provided with wealth of treasure and offerings (Hdt. 8,33,1).
    These extracts are from: Herodotus, The Histories, ed. A. D. Godley, Cambridge. Harvard University Press
    Cited Sept. 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks


    TRITEA (Ancient city) PARNASSOS

    By Xerxes, 480 BC

    The barbarians, while the Thessalians so guided their army, overran the whole of Phocis. All that came within their power they laid waste to and burnt, setting fire to towns and temples (Hdt. 8,32,2).
    Marching this way down the river Cephisus, they ravaged everything that lay in their way, burning the towns of Drymus, Charadra, Erochus, Tethronium, Amphicaea, Neon, Pediea, Tritea, Elatea, Hyampolis, Parapotamii, and Abae, where there was a richly endowed temple of Apollo, provided with wealth of treasure and offerings (Hdt. 8,33,1).

    This extract is from: Herodotus, The Histories, ed. A. D. Godley, Cambridge. Harvard University Press
    Cited Sept. 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.


    YAMPOLIS (Ancient city) ATALANTI

    By Xerxes, 480 BC

    The barbarians. . .overran the whole of Phocis. All that came within their power they laid waste to and burnt, setting fire to towns and temples. Marching this way down the river Cephisus, they ravaged everything that lay in their way, burning the towns of Drymus, Charadra, Erochus, Tethronium, Amphicaea, Neon, Pediea, Tritea, Elatea, Hyampolis, Parapotamii, and Abae . . .

    This extract is from: Herodotus. The Histories (ed. A. D. Godley, 1920), Cambridge. Harvard University Press. Cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.


    By Philip II, 346 BC

    In the tenth year after the seizure of the sanctuary, Philip put an end to the war, which was called both the Phocian War and the Sacred War, in the year when Theophilus was archon at Athens, which was the first of the hundred and eighth Olympiad at which Polycles of Cyrene was victorious in the foot-race. The cities of Phocis were captured and razed to the ground. The tale of them was Lilaea, Hyampolis, Anticyra, Parapotamii, Panopeus and Daulis. These cities were distinguished in days of old, especially because of the poetry of Homer.
    The army of Xerxes, burning down certain of these, made them better known in Greece, namely Erochus, Charadra, Amphicleia, Neon, Tithronium and Drymaea. The rest of the Phocian cities, except Elateia, were not famous in former times, I mean Phocian Trachis, Phocian Medeon, Echedameia, Ambrossus, Ledon, Phlygonium and Stiris. On the occasion to which I have referred all the cities enumerated were razed to the ground and their people scattered in villages.

    This extract is from: Pausanias. Description of Greece (ed. W.H.S. Jones, Litt.D., & H.A. Ormerod, 1918). Cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.


    Colonizations by the inhabitants

    CHALKIS (Ancient city) EVIA

    Chalcis colonized the cities that were subject to Olynthus, which later were treated outrageously by Philip. And many places in Italy and Sicily are also Chalcidian.


    Amphipolis

    The Amphipolitans having received settlers from Chalcis were most of them driven out by them (Aristotle, Politics: section 1303b).


    Leontines

    Leontines, who were colonists from Chalcis (Diodorus Siculus, Library: book 12, chapter 53, section 1)


    Rhegium

    The inhabitants of Rhegium, who were colonists of Chalcis (Diodorus Siculus, Library: book 14, chapter 40, section 1).


    Cumae

    Palaeopolis was a city not far from the present site of Neapolis The two cities formed one community. The original inhabitants came from Cumae; Cumae traced its origin to Chalcis in Euboea. The fleet in which they had sailed from home gave them the mastery of the coastal district which they now occupy, and after landing in the islands of Aenaria and Pithecusae they ventured to transfer their settle- ments to the mainland. (Perseus Project - Livy, History of Rome (ed. Rev. Canon Roberts): book 8, chapter 22 ).


    Naxos

    Naxos was founded in Sicily by the Chalcidians on the Euripus.


    ERETRIA (Ancient city) EVIA

    Be this as it may, these cities grew exceptionally strong and even sent forth noteworthy colonies into Macedonia; for Eretria colonized the cities situated round Pallene and Athos, and Chalcis colonized the cities that were subject to Olynthus, which later were treated outrageously by Philip.


    Defeats

    THIVES (Ancient city) VIOTIA

    By Athenians and Plateans, near Plateae.

    The Plateans after the rule of Hippias in Athens joined the Athenians and asked for help against the Thebans. The Athenians were glad to offer their help, because the Thebans had gone over to the Medes in 479 BC in Plateae. the Athenians won a battle near Plateae and established the Asopus river as the border of the Theban state.


    By Lacedaemonians at Corinth, 394 BC.


    By Lacedaemonians at Coronea, 394 BC.


    Destruction and end of the town

    ALIARTOS (Ancient city) VIOTIA

    From the Roman Lucritius, 171 B.C.

    (Polyv. 30,21,9)


    AMFIKLIA (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

    By Philip II, 346 BC

    Philip put an end to the war, which was called both the Phocian War and the Sacred War . . .The cities of Phocis were captured and razed to the ground. . .and their people scattered in villages.


    AMVROSSOS (Ancient city) VIOTIA

    By Philip II, 346 B.C.

    In the tenth year after the seizure of the sanctuary, Philip put an end to the war, which was called both the Phocian War and the Sacred War, in the year when Theophilus was archon at Athens, which was the first of the hundred and eighth Olympiad at which Polycles of Cyrene was victorious in the foot-race. The cities of Phocis were captured and razed to the ground. The tale of them was Lilaea, Hyampolis, Anticyra, Parapotamii, Panopeus and Daulis. These cities were distinguished in days of old, especially because of the poetry of Homer.
    The army of Xerxes, burning down certain of these, made them better known in Greece, namely Erochus, Charadra, Amphicleia, Neon, Tithronium and Drymaea. The rest of the Phocian cities, except Elateia, were not famous in former times, I mean Phocian Trachis, Phocian Medeon, Echedameia, Ambrossus, Ledon, Phlygonium and Stiris. On the occasion to which I have referred all the cities enumerated were razed to the ground and their people scattered in villages (Paus. 10,3,1-2).

    This extract is from: Pausanias. Description of Greece (ed. W.H.S. Jones, Litt.D., & H.A. Ormerod, 1918). Cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.


    CHARADRA (Ancient city) PARNASSOS

    By Philip II, 346 BC

    In the tenth year after the seizure of the sanctuary, Philip put an end to the war, which was called both the Phocian War and the Sacred War, in the year when Theophilus was archon at Athens, which was the first of the hundred and eighth Olympiad at which Polycles of Cyrene was victorious in the foot-race. The cities of Phocis were captured and razed to the ground. The tale of them was Lilaea, Hyampolis, Anticyra, Parapotamii, Panopeus and Daulis. These cities were distinguished in days of old, especially because of the poetry of Homer.
    The army of Xerxes, burning down certain of these, made them better known in Greece, namely Erochus, Charadra, Amphicleia, Neon, Tithronium and Drymaea. The rest of the Phocian cities, except Elateia, were not famous in former times, I mean Phocian Trachis, Phocian Medeon, Echedameia, Ambrossus, Ledon, Phlygonium and Stiris. On the occasion to which I have referred all the cities enumerated were razed to the ground and their people scattered in villages (Paus. 10,3,1-2).

    This extract is from: Pausanias Description of Greece with an English Translation by W.H.S. Jones, Litt.D., and H.A. Ormerod, M.A., in 4 Volumes. Harvard University Press
    Cited Sept. 2002 from Perseus Project URL bellow, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.


    ECHEDAMIA (Ancient city) FOKIS

    By Philip II, 346 BC

    In the tenth year after the seizure of the sanctuary, Philip put an end to the war, which was called both the Phocian War and the Sacred War, in the year when Theophilus was archon at Athens, which was the first of the hundred and eighth Olympiad at which Polycles of Cyrene was victorious in the foot-race. The cities of Phocis were captured and razed to the ground. The tale of them was Lilaea, Hyampolis, Anticyra, Parapotamii, Panopeus and Daulis. These cities were distinguished in days of old, especially because of the poetry of Homer.
    The army of Xerxes, burning down certain of these, made them better known in Greece, namely Erochus, Charadra, Amphicleia, Neon, Tithronium and Drymaea. The rest of the Phocian cities, except Elateia, were not famous in former times, I mean Phocian Trachis, Phocian Medeon, Echedameia, Ambrossus, Ledon, Phlygonium and Stiris. On the occasion to which I have referred all the cities enumerated were razed to the ground and their people scattered in villages (Paus. 10,3,1-2).

    This extract is from: Pausanias Description of Greece with an English Translation by W.H.S. Jones, Litt.D., and H.A. Ormerod, M.A., in 4 Volumes. Harvard University Press
    Cited Sept. 2002 from Perseus Project URL bellow, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.


    EROCHOS (Ancient city) PARNASSOS

    By Philip II, 346 BC

    In the tenth year after the seizure of the sanctuary, Philip put an end to the war, which was called both the Phocian War and the Sacred War, in the year when Theophilus was archon at Athens, which was the first of the hundred and eighth Olympiad at which Polycles of Cyrene was victorious in the foot-race. The cities of Phocis were captured and razed to the ground. The tale of them was Lilaea, Hyampolis, Anticyra, Parapotamii, Panopeus and Daulis. These cities were distinguished in days of old, especially because of the poetry of Homer.
    The army of Xerxes, burning down certain of these, made them better known in Greece, namely Erochus, Charadra, Amphicleia, Neon, Tithronium and Drymaea. The rest of the Phocian cities, except Elateia, were not famous in former times, I mean Phocian Trachis, Phocian Medeon, Echedameia, Ambrossus, Ledon, Phlygonium and Stiris. On the occasion to which I have referred all the cities enumerated were razed to the ground and their people scattered in villages (Paus. 10,3,1-2).

    This extract is from: Pausanias Description of Greece with an English Translation by W.H.S. Jones, Litt.D., and H.A. Ormerod, M.A., in 4 Volumes. Harvard University Press
    Cited Sept. 2002 from Perseus Project URL bellow, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.


    FLYGONION (Ancient city) VIOTIA

    By Philippus, 346 BC

    Philip put an end to the war, which was called both the Phocian War and the Sacred War . . .The cities of Phocis were captured and razed to the ground. . .and their people scattered in villages.


    MEDEON (Ancient city) PARNASSOS

    By Philip II, 346 BC

    In the tenth year after the seizure of the sanctuary, Philip put an end to the war, which was called both the Phocian War and the Sacred War, in the year when Theophilus was archon at Athens, which was the first of the hundred and eighth Olympiad at which Polycles of Cyrene was victorious in the foot-race. The cities of Phocis were captured and razed to the ground. The tale of them was Lilaea, Hyampolis, Anticyra, Parapotamii, Panopeus and Daulis. These cities were distinguished in days of old, especially because of the poetry of Homer.
    The army of Xerxes, burning down certain of these, made them better known in Greece, namely Erochus, Charadra, Amphicleia, Neon, Tithronium and Drymaea. The rest of the Phocian cities, except Elateia, were not famous in former times, I mean Phocian Trachis, Phocian Medeon, Echedameia, Ambrossus, Ledon, Phlygonium and Stiris. On the occasion to which I have referred all the cities enumerated were razed to the ground and their people scattered in villages.

    This extract is from: Pausanias Description of Greece with an English Translation by W.H.S. Jones, Litt.D., and H.A. Ormerod, M.A., in 4 Volumes. Harvard University Press
    Cited Sept. 2002 from Perseus Project URL bellow, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.


    OGCHISTOS (Ancient city) VIOTIA

    By Romans, 171 BC.


    PARAPOTAMII (Ancient city) CHERONIA

    By Philip II, 346 BC

    Philip put an end to the war, which was called both the Phocian War and the Sacred War . . .The cities of Phocis were captured and razed to the ground. . .and their people scattered in villages.


    TITHRONION (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

    By Philip II, 346 B.C.

    In the tenth year after the seizure of the sanctuary, Philip put an end to the war, which was called both the Phocian War and the Sacred War, in the year when Theophilus was archon at Athens, which was the first of the hundred and eighth Olympiad1 at which Polycles of Cyrene was victorious in the foot-race. The cities of Phocis were captured and razed to the ground. The tale of them was Lilaea, Hyampolis, Anticyra, Parapotamii, Panopeus and Daulis. These cities were distinguished in days of old, especially because of the poetry of Homer.
    The army of Xerxes, burning down certain of these, made them better known in Greece, namely Erochus, Charadra, Amphicleia, Neon, Tithronium and Drymaea. The rest of the Phocian cities, except Elateia, were not famous in former times, I mean Phocian Trachis, Phocian Medeon, Echedameia, Ambrossus, Ledon, Phlygonium and Stiris. On the occasion to which I have referred all the cities enumerated were razed to the ground and their people scattered in villages.
    This extract is from: Pausanias Description of Greece with an English Translation by W.H.S. Jones, Litt.D., and H.A. Ormerod, M.A., in 4 Volumes. Harvard University Press
    Cited Sept. 2002 from Perseus Project URL bellow, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.


    TRACHIS (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

    By Philip II, 346 BC

    Philip put an end to the war, which was called both the Phocian War and the Sacred War . . .The cities of Phocis were captured and razed to the ground. . .and their people scattered in villages.


    Foreign dominations

    CHALKIS (Ancient city) EVIA

    Athenians, 506 BC.

    The Athenians made a clever use of their victory, and after defeating the Boeotians and Chalcidians, they at once after the battle made themselves masters of the city of Chalcis.


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