gtp logo

Location information

Listed 20 sub titles with search on: History  for wider area of: "ETOLOAKARNANIA Prefecture GREECE" .

History (20)


Aetolian League

   Aetolicum Foedus, (to koinon ton Aitolon). A confederation of the Aetolian towns, afterwards joined by other towns and cantons of Greece, and formed in B.C. 338, after the battle of Chaeronea, to counteract the influence of Macedonia in the affairs of Greece. Its political existence was destroyed in B.C. 189 by the treaty with Rome by which the Aetolians became Roman subjects.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Aetolian League : Perseus Project

Aetolian League

Sanctuary of Apollo and meeting place of the Aetolian League


Place for Conferences for the Public of Akarnes



The Battle at Olpae, 426 BC


Catastrophes of the place

Commercial WebPages

Destruction and end of the town

From Etolias, 314 B.C.


Foundation/Settlement of the place

Kypselos & Gorgos, 7th century BC

The Corinthians sent by Cypselus and Gorgus took possession of this shore and also advanced as far as the Ambracian Gulf; and both Ambracia and Anactorium were colonized at this time. (Strabo 10,2,8)

Greek Revolution (1821-1829)

Naval battles

Official pages

  In ancient times western Greece was a land of two great nations - Etolon and Akarnanon. The disputed boundary between them was the Acheloos River.
  Akarnania was comprised of the western part from the Ionian sea till the Acheloos and from the Amvrakiko Gulf till the Gulf of Astakos and the estuaries of the Acheloos.
  There is a legend that the area of Astakos was the land of the Cyclops, more specifically, on the rugged slope of Veloutsas over Kasteli is located the cave of the Cyclops who blinded Odysseas, while some impressively large boulders in the valley are believed to be those which the angry Cyclops threw at Odysseas and his companions in order to sink their ship.
  According to mythology, and what Thoukidides tells us, the first colonizer of the area of Astakos was Alkmeon, son of the king of the Argos, Amphiarao Alkmeon, was thrown out by the Furies after having killed his mother. He reached the estuaries of Acheloos and settled there. He became the head of the area and had a son, Akarnana, whose name was later given to this area.
  The most ancient trace of inhabitants in Etoloakarnania were found in caves near Astakos and at the foot of Varsovas (Kryoneri) while the ruins at St: Elias can be dated back to the Neolithic era. Settlements from this era were not saved. However, we have important remnants of facilities and mansions of the early age of copper at Platygiali near Astakos, (St. Pantelemonas) at Palaia Plevron and at Palaiomanina (Savria).
  During the Mycean years, the influence of the centers of Eastern Greece becomes noticeable in many sectors of Etolia and Akarnania in the towns Koronta and Pelasgiko, Astakos and Palero. In the 5th century B.C. in Akarnania there were centres which were highly developed, minting their own money and having their own armies.
  From 500-300 B.C. many wars were fought in this area and many alliances were made, according to the needs of each period of time.
  During the years of the Peloponesian war, Astakos was mentioned by Thucydides twice.
  The first time was during the first year of the war when 100 Athenian triremes attacked Astakos and overthrew Evarcho who soon asked the Corinthians and Lakedemonians for help. They arrived at Astakos with forty ships and reinstated the tyrant (431 B.C.). The rule of Corinth over Astakos lasted about 2 years. The second reference takes us to the third year of the war when the Athenian fleet approached Astakos for the second time with Phormiona as commander. A landing force of 800 men pouched their way into the interior of Akarnania and for a rather long period of time conducted various undertakings with the intention of strengthening the Athenian rule over the whole land.
  Thucydides also mentions another stronghold, Koronta.
Around 218-206 B.C. the decline of Etolia and Akarnania began with the attack of Phillip 5 th. Around 30 B.C. with the founding of Nicopolis and the Roman settlement of Patra in the 14th century B.C. The depopulation of the area started with the population moving towards Amvrakiko and Nicopolis. From various sources we gather that the towns Anaktorio, Thyrrei, Livia and Metropolis existed until the 2nd century B.C. Today they are known as Palaia manina, Astakos and Koronta.
Byzantine Era
  From the Roman era until the revolution of 1821, the area of Akarnania and Etolia went through a period in which developments were rapid and they show in the archeological findings and in the ruins of ancient Christian churches. A blossoming of artistic expression from the centers of Byzantium, most especially Constantinople and Thessaloniki, is noticed.
  Akarnania, with the founding of the state of Epirus which was called a domain (1204) suffered from barbarian raids such as Slavs, Arabs and Bulgarians who plundered, destroyed and ruined. The whole area was later destroyed again during the Venetian-Turkish wars. We ascertain that the area was continually under the clouds of war during that time.
Later Years
  Many conflicts of the then strong nations continued during the following years for the domination of the area, due to the importance of its location.
  In 1358 all the fortresses which belonged to the domain of Epirus were taken over by the Albanians until 1405 when Charles I, count of Cephalonia and Lefkada, become victorious.
  In 1430 the whole area passed into the hands of Sinan Pasa, and the long-lasting rule of the Turks in the area was strengthened. On October 7, 1571, in the area of Astakos, near the Echinades Islands, with 25,000 soldiers. One of the biggest naval battles of the Middle Ages - the battle of Lepante - took place. The united Christian fleet, with 285 ships of the Venetians, Spaniards and Pope Pious and with 8,000 Greeks under Don Juan of Austria, confronted and crushed the Turkish fleet of Kapoudan Pasa.
  This naval battle was the beginning of the collapse of the myth that Ottoman Empire was unbeatable on land and sea. The reconstruction of the nation owes a great deal to the institution of communities which was the basic nuclear social organization. The Akarnanians of Xiromero were forerunners in the freedom fight and in many revolutionary movements.
  The battles which took place during this period were numerous and bloody. In the Akarnanian mountains the klephts flourished. In the area of Dragamestov, George Karaiskakis deployed his encampment. For this reason, the old village Dragamestov, in its new location, is now called Karaiskaki. In Dragamesto General George also deployed an encampment in 1827. On May 25th, 1921 the revolution in Xiromero was declared with the publication and circulation of the revolutionary proclamation written by George Varnakioti.
  In August 1824, Karaiskakis lay in ambush for a Turkish convoy at the location "Manina". On July 10, 1827, Dimos Tselios made a landing at Dragamesto.
  His units joined the forces of Rangou and together they attacked the Turks and took possession of Mytikas and Kandila. On November 17, 1827, Greek forces carry out a landing at Dragamesto and continue on to seize Chrysovitsa and Ligovitsi. Later, during the period 1940-1944, the offering and participation of the people of the area was important. A significant battle against the occupation forces took place at Tsapournia.

This text is cited December 2004 from the West Greece Region General Secretariat URL below.

  The first residents must have been fishermen. In 1204 this island was given to the Venetians. Then, from 1370 to 1821, it belonged successively to lord Boua, lord Spata, lord Griva, the Venetians, the Turks, Morozini and to the Turks.

This text is cited December 2004 from the West Greece Region General Secretariat URL below, which contains images.

  Messolongi it is the sacred town of the immortal heroes, a town of freedom and it is very picturesque.
  It becomes known in history in the 16th century just before the sea battle of Nafpaktos on 7 October 1571. During the pre-Christian period in this area of Messolongi there were 3 ancient towns. They were Kalidona, which is now Evinohori, Plevrona, now called Castle of Kira-Rini and Alikirna which is now Hilia Spitia built just below the historical Monastery of St. Simeon.
  The inhabitants were fishermen and Dalmatian pirates living in straw huts positioned in the lakes of the gulf of Patra. Later on the area was called Mezzo Langhi by the Italians which means "between the lakes".
  Messolongi played a very important role during the Greek uprising. In 1822 the Turks tried to take it but were unsuccessful. Four years later the inhabitants of Messolongi unfortunately succumbed to the Turks, who surrounded the Town and on 10 April 1826 they decided on the mass Exodus of Messolongi. Unfortunately their plan was betrayed to the Turks by someone and the consequences were tragic .
  Messolongi fell but its history stands high and illuminates hearts throughout the ages.
  In 1829 Messolongi was liberated from the Turks and started again to flourish. In 1835 they appointed a mayor and in 1937 the government decided unanimously to name it the Sacred Town of Greece .

This text is cited December 2004 from the West Greece Region General Secretariat URL below, which contains images.

Brief Description of Ancient Nafpaktos
  The picturesque, mainly Venetian castle, from which ramparts descend to enclose the little harbour, reminds us of its medieval past when it was known in the West as Lepanto. The square, shaded by jacaranda trees, looks across the Gulf to Mt. Panakhaikon in Peloponnesus. Ancient Nafpaktos was taken during the arrival of the Doric Clans in 1104 BC. The town was destroyed by earthquakes in 583 BC. Later the town was occupied by the Ozolian Locrians, and was taken in 454 BC. by the Athenians.Here they established a colony of Messenians, who had been dispossessed by their Spartan conquerors. The place played an important part in the Peloponnesian War; it was successfully defended in 429 BC. by Phormion and in 426 BC. by Demosthenes against the Spartans. In 338 BC., Philip the 2nd of Macedonia occupies Nafpaktos from the Achaians and delivers it to the Aetolians. In 218 BC., Nafpaktos becomes the capital of the Aetolic Confederation. Nafpaktos is classified in Dominant of Epirus in 1205-1295 AD. The town becomes a Venetian Colony in the year 1407-1499 AD. Occupied by the Turks in 1499, Lepanto is chiefly celebrated for the victory which the combined popal, Spanish, Venetian, and Genoese fleets, under Don Juan of Austria, gained over the Turkish fleet on Oct. 7, 1571. At last, Nafpaktos was liberated from the Turks, in 1821-1829 A.D. Saint Dimitrios, protector of the city of Nafpaktos, was martyred in 305 A.D. defending Christianity. He is also regarded as the Patron Saint of Thessaloniki and its saviour during difficult moments. Nafpaktos is one of the few Greek towns that managed to survive and to pass from prehistorical age to nowadays. The town for more than 3.200 years of turbulent life, appeared under various names, such as, Nafpaktos from its founding Lepanto by the Venetians, Epahtos by the Byzantines, Enevahte and Nepahtos by the Turks. Its primary name came from the fact that the area is located historically as naval colony, where ships were manufactured, by Loric races and later by Doric ones. Nafs (ship) + pignimi (manufacture) = Nafpaktos.
Naval Victory-La Victore De Lepante, Le Rosaire
  On October 7, 1571, Selim II, Sultan of the Turks, was utterly destroyed in a disastrous naval defeat near the harbor of Lepanto. This great victory is always ascribed to Pope Pius V and is mentioned in his canonization in 1712. At the hour of the battle, a procession of the Rosary began its march to the church of Minerva. The pope was present, and, quite unexpectedly walked to a window, threw open its doors and stood in a trance for a considerable time. Returning to the cardinals, he remarked, "It is now time to give thanks for the great victory which has been granted us." Officials later compared the time of the pope's words with the records of the battle and found them in precise accord. But the real reason for crediting the pope with the victory came from the mouths of the prisoners taken in battle. They attested, with unquestionable conviction, that they had seen Jesus Christ, Saint Peter, Saint Paul, Santa Maria Di Lepanto and a multitude of angels, sword in hand, fighting against Selim and the Turks, blinding them with smoke.

This text is cited December 2004 from the West Greece Region General Secretariat URL below, which contains images.

Participation in the fights of the Greeks

Battle of Plataea

. . . next again, five hundred Ampraciots. After these stood eight hundred Leucadians and Anactorians, and next to them two hundred from Pale in Cephallenia

Battle of Plataea



Brief Historical review

1104 B.C. Descent of Doric races.
553 B.C. Earthquakes destroy the large and rich town of Nafpactos, totally.
454-396 B.C. Nafpactos takes part in the Peloponnesian War.
338 B.C. Philip the 2nd of Macedonia, occupies Nafpactos from Achaians and delivers it to Aetolians.
218 B.C. Nafpactos becomes the capital of Aetolic Confederation.
146 B.C. Nafpactos, the entire Greece too, is occupied by Romans.
197 A.D. Nafpactos becomes head quarters of Christian Bishopric and the first Exarhus of the entire Aetolia was Kallikrates.
1204-1294 A.D. Nafpactos is classified in Dominant of Epirus.
1407-1499 A.D. The town becomes a Venetian colony. The Venetians reinforce the fortification and Nafpactos is a powerful, commercial center now.
1499 A.D. Nafpactos is occupied by Turks.
1571 A.D. The famous Naval Battle of Nafpactos, where the Western Christian Navy knocked against the Ottoman one. The Ottoman Navy was defeated and the march of Turks against Europe has been stopped.
1571-1687 A.D. Nafpactos becomes Algerian pirates fortress, who plunder the whole area.
1700 A.D. The town is surrendered to Turks according to Carlovicz Convention.
1821 A.D. Ineffective effort for liberation of the town.
1829 A.D. Liberation of Nafpactos from Turks.
This text (extract) is cited August 2003 from the Municipality of Nafpaktos tourist pamphlet.

You are able to search for more information in greater and/or surrounding areas by choosing one of the titles below and clicking on "more".

GTP Headlines

Receive our daily Newsletter with all the latest updates on the Greek Travel industry.

Subscribe now!
Greek Travel Pages: A bible for Tourism professionals. Buy online

Ferry Departures