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Πληροφορίες τοπωνυμίου

Εμφανίζονται 5 τίτλοι με αναζήτηση: Ιστορία για το τοπωνύμιο: "ΠΟΡΟΣ Νησί ΕΛΛΑΔΑ".


Ιστορία (5)

Αρχαιότητα

  Ο Πόρος στην αρχαιότητα ονομαζόταν Καλαυρία. Η Σφαιρία, όπου βρίσκεται η πόλη του Πόρου σήμερα, ήταν ακατοίκητη. Νεολιθικά ευρήματα υπάρχουν στη χερσόνησο των Μεθάνων και στον Πόρο, κοντά στο ιερό του Ποσειδώνα, όπου λατρεύονταν ο Ποσειδώνας και η Απατουρία Αθηνά και όπου αναπτύχθηκε η αμφικτυονία (ιερή συμμαχία) της Καλαυρίας. Σ’ αυτήν συμμετείχαν επτά πόλεις-κράτη της περιοχής: Αθήνα, Αίγινα, Επίδαυρος, Ερμιόνη, Πρασσιές, Ναύπλιον, Ορχομενός, και ήκμασε μέχρι τον 5ο π.Χ. αι. Όμως το ιερό του Ποσειδώνα συνέχισε να είναι χώρος λατρείας και άσυλο για τους φυγάδες που προσέφευγαν εκεί. Ο πιο σπουδαίος απ’ αυτούς ήταν ο ρήτορας Δημοσθένης που με τους πύρινους λόγους του εναντίον των Μακεδόνων ξεσήκωνε τους Αθηναίους, όταν όμως η Αθήνα κατακτήθηκε από τον Αλέξανδρο κατηγορήθηκε για κατάχρηση και αφού δεν μπορούσε να πληρώσει το βαρύ πρόστιμο που του επέβαλαν, διέφυγε στην Αίγινα, απ’ όπου συνέχισε τον αγώνα του. Τότε τον καταδίκασαν σε θάνατο και αναγκάστηκε να προσφύγει ικέτης στο ναό του Ποσειδώνα. Οι διώκτες του όμως τον ακολούθησαν και αυτός μη θέλοντας να παραδοθεί, αυτοκτόνησε με δηλητήριο, και τάφηκε στο νησί.
Το κείμενο (απόσπασμα) παρατίθεται το Δεκέμβριο 2003 από τουριστικό φυλλάδιο του Συλλόγου Ενοικιαζομένων Δωματίων & Διαμερισμάτων Γαλατά & Πόρου.


Kalauria

  Island in the Saronic Gulf to the NE of Troizen. It was known as Kalauria (Strab. 8.6.14) and Kalaureia (Apoll. Rhod. III 1243) in antiquity. Chanddler (Voy. As. Mm. Grece I 228) identified Poros as Kalauria. The ancient city was located at the highest part of Poros. At first it was independent, with a high magistrate called tamias but later came under the dominion of Troizen. The area was inhabited from the Early Helladic period. The city preserves sections of the Hellenistic walls, a contemporary stoa and an unidentified heroon that lie at the agora. The harbor of the city was named Pogon. A street led from it to the Temple of Poseidon through a propylon. The cult on the area dates to the beginning of the 8th c. B.C. The temple, enclosed in a peribolos, is a Doric peripteros (6 x 12 columns) and dates to ca. 520 B.C. Between the temple and the propylon there were three stoas dating in the 4th c. B.C. and a fourth dating ca. 420 B.C. Another long stoa and a rectangular building lie SW of the hieron. The latter has been associated with the convention of the maritime amphictyony of Kalauria (Strab. 8.6.14). The tomb of Demosthenes, who poisoned himself at the sanctuary in 332 B.C., was still preserved in the time of Pausanias (2.33.3).

D. Schilardi, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains 12 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Calaurea

   The modern Poro; a small island in the Saronic Gulf off the coast of Argolis and opposite Troezen, possessing a celebrated Temple of Poseidon, which was regarded as an inviolable asylum. Hither Demosthenes fled to escape Antipater, and here he took poison, B.C. 322. His tomb was one of the sights of the island.

This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Sphaeria, Sphairia

Now Poros; an island off the coast of Troezen, in Argolis, and between it and the island of Calauria.


Calauria League

  Troezen is sacred to Poseidon, after whom it was once called Poseidonia. It is situated fifteen stadia above the sea, and it too is an important city. Off its harbor, Pogon by name, lies Calauria, an isle with a circuit of about one hundred and thirty stadia. Here was an asylum sacred to Poseidon; and they say that this god made an exchange with Leto, giving her Delos for Calauria, and also with Apollo, giving him Pytho for Taenarum. And Ephorus goes on to tell the oracle: "For thee it is the same thing to possess Delos or Calauria, most holy Pytho or windy Taenarum." And there was also a kind of Amphictyonic League connected with this temple, a league of seven cities which shared in the sacrifice; they were Hermion, Epidaurus, Aegina, Athens, Prasieis, Nauplieis, and Orchomenus Minyeius; however, the Argives paid dues for the Nauplians, and the Lacedaemonians for the Prasians. The worship of this god was so prevalent among the Greeks that even the Macedonians, whose power already extended as far as the temple, in a way preserved its inviolability, and were afraid to drag away the suppliants who fled for refuge to Calauria; indeed Archias, with soldiers, did not venture to do violence even to Demosthenes, although he had been ordered by Antipater to bring him alive, both him and all the other orators he could find that were under similar charges, but tried to persuade him; he could not persuade him, however, and Demosthenes forestalled him by suiciding with poison. Now Troezen and Pittheus, the sons of Pelops, came originally from Pisatis; and the former left behind him the city which was named after him, and the latter succeeded him and reigned as king. But Anthes, who previously had possession of the place, set sail and founded Halicarnassus; but concerning this I shall speak in my description of Caria and Troy.

This extract is from: The Geography of Strabo (ed. H. L. Jones, 1924), Cambridge. Harvard University Press. Cited Oct 2003 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.


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