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Biographies (10)

Generals

Archelaus

Archelaus (Archelaos), a general of Mithridates, and the greatest that he had. He was a native of Cappadocia, and the first time that his name occurs is in B. C. 88, when he and his brother Neoptolemus had the command against Nicomedes III. of Bithynia, whom they defeated near the river Amnius in Paphlagonia. In the next year he was sent by Mithridates with a large fleet and army into Greece, where he reduced several islands, and after persuading the Athenians to abandon the cause of the Romans, he soon gained for Mithridates nearly the whole of Greece south of Thessaly. In Boeotia, however, he met Bruttius Sura, the legate of Sextius, the governor of Macedonia, with whom he had during three days a hard struggle in the neighbourhood of Chaeroneia, until at last, on the arrival of Lacedaemonian and Achaean auxiliaries for Archelaus, the Roman general withdrew to Peiraeeus, which however was blockaded and taken possession of by Archelaus. In the meantime, Sulla, to whom the command of the war against Mithridates had been given, had arrived in Greece, and immediately marched towards Attica. As he was passing through Boeotia, Thebes deserted the cause of Archelaus, and joined the Romans. On his arrival in Attica, he sent a part of his army to besiege Aristion in Athens, while he himself with his main force went straight on to Peiraeeus, where Archelaus had retreated within the walls. Archelaus maintained himself during a long-protracted siege, until in the end, Sulla, despairing of success in Peiraeeus, turned against Athens itself. The city was soon taken, and then fresh attacks made upon Peiraeeus, with such success, that Archelaus was obliged to withdraw to the most impregnable part of the place. In the meanwhile, Mithridates sent fresh reinforcements to Archelaus, and on their arrival he withdrew with them into Boeotia, B. C. 86, and there assembled all his forces. Sulla followed him, and in the neighbourhood of Chaeroneia a battle ensued, in which the Romans gained such a complete victory, that of the 120,000 men with whom Archelaus had opened the campaign no more than 10,000 assembled at Chalcis in Euboea, where Archelaus had taken refuge. Sulla pursued his enemy as far as the coast of the Euripus, but having no fleet, he was obliged to allow him to make his predatory excursions among the islands, from which, however, he afterwards was obliged to return to Chalcis. Mithridates had in the meantime collected a fresh army of 80,000 men, which Doryalus or Dorylaus led to Archelaus. With these increased forces, Archelaus again crossed over into Boeotia, and in the neighbourhood of Orchomenos was completely defeated by Sulla in a battle which lasted for two days. Archelaus himself was concealed for three days after in the marshes, until he got a vessel which carried him over to Chalcis, where he collected the few remnants of his forces. When Mithridates, who was himself hard pressed in Asia by C. Fimbria, was informed of this defeat, he commissioned Archelaus to negotiate for peace on honourable terms, B. C. 85. Archelaus accordingly had an interview with Sulla at Delium in Boeotia. Sulla's attempt to make Archelaus betray his master was rejected with indignation, and Archelaus confined himself to concluding a preliminary treaty which was to be binding if it received the sanction of Mithridates. While waiting for the king's answer, Sulla made an expedition against some of the barbarous tribes which at the time infested Macedonia, and was accompanied by Archelaus, for whom he had conceived great esteem. In his answer, Mithridates refused to surrender his fleet, which Archelaus, in his interview with Sulla, had likewise refused to do; and when Sulla would not conclude peace on any other terms, Archelaus himself, who was exceedingly anxious that peace should be concluded, set out for Asia, and brought about a meeting of Sulla and his king at Dardanus in Troas, at which peace was agreed upon, on condition that each party should remain in possession of what had belonged to them before the war. This peace was in so far unfavourable to Mithridates, as he had made all his enormous sacrifices for nothing ; and when Mithridates began to feel that he had made greater concessions' than he ought, he also began to suspect Archelaus of treachery, and the latter, fearing for his life, deserted to the Romans just before the outbreak of the second Mithridatic War, B. C. 81. He stimulated Murena not to wait for the attack of the king, but to begin hostilities at once. From this moment Archelaus is no more mentioned in history, but several writers state incidentally, that he was honoured by the Roman senate. (Appian, de Bell. Mithrid. 17-64; Plut. Sull. 11-24; Liv. Epit. 81 and 82; Vell. Pat. ii. 25; Florus, iii. 5; Oros. vi. 2; Paus. i. 20.3, &ec.; Aurel. Vict. de Vir. Illustr. 75, 76; Dion Cass. Fragm. n. 173; Sallust. Fragm. Hist. lib. iv.)

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Demetrius

Demetrius, a son of Ariarathes V., king of Cappadocia, commanded the forces sent by his father in 154 B. C. to support Attalus in his war against Prusias. (Polyb. xxxiii. 10.)

Doctors

Aretaeus (Apetaios)

Aretaeus (Apetaios). A physician of Cappadocia, born near the close of the second century A.D. He was the author of two works, each in four books, on the causes, symptoms, and cure of acute and chronic pains. He wrote in the Ionic dialect with much elegance and clearness; and his treatises show a correctness of understanding with regard to medicine unusual among the ancient writers on this subject. He discourses with especial acuteness of the nerves, of indigestion, and gives an excellent account of diseases of the throat and tonsils.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Aretaeus (Aretaios), one of the most celebrated of the ancient Greek physicians, of whose life, however, no particulars are known. There is some uncertainty respecting both his age and country; but it seems probable that he practised in the first century after Christ, in the reign of Nero or Vespasian, and he is generally styled "the Cappadocian" (Kappadox). He wrote in Ionic Greek a general treatise on diseases, which is still extant, and is certainly one of the most valuable reliques of antiquity, displaying great accuracy in the detail of symptoms, and in seizing the diagnostic character of diseases. In his practice he followed for the most part the method of Hippocrates, but he paid less attention to what have been styled "the natural actions" of the system; and, contrary to the practice of the Father of Medicine, he did not hesitate to attempt to counteract them, when they appeared to him to be injurious. The account which he gives of his treatment of various diseases indicates a simple and sagacious system, and one of more energy than that of the professed Methodici. Thus he freely administered active purgatives; he did not object to narcotics; he was much less averse to bleeding; and upon the whole his Materia Medica was both ample and efficient. It may be asserted generally that there are few of the ancient physicians, since the time of Hippocrates, who appear to have been less biassed by attachment to any peculiar set of opinions, and whose account of the phenomena and treatment of disease has better stood the test of subsequent experience. Aretaeus is placed by some writers among the Pneumatici, because he maintained the doctrines which are peculiar to this sect; other systematic writers, however, think that he is better entitled to be placed with the Eclectics.
  His work consists of eight book, of which four are entitled Peri Aition kai Semeion Oxeon kai Chronion Pathon, De Causis et Signis Acutorum et Diuturnorum Morborum ; and the other four, Peri Therapeias Oxeon kai Chronion Pathon, De Curatione Acutorum et Diuturnorum Morborum. They are in a tolerably complete state of preservation, though a few chapters are lost. The work was first published in a Latin translation by J. P. Crassus, Venet. 1552, together with Rufus Ephesius. The first Greek edition is that by J. Goupylus, Paris, 1554, which is more complete than the Latin version of Crassus. In 1723 a magnificent edition in folio was published at the Clarendon press at Oxford, edited by J. Wigan, containing an improved text, a new Latin version, learned dissertations and notes, and a copious index by Maittaire. In 1731, the celebrated Boerhaave brought out a new edition, of which the text and Latin version had been printed before the appearance of Wigan's, and are of less value than his; this edition, however, contains a copious and useful collection of annotations by P. Petit and D. W. Triller. The last and most useful edition is that by C. G. Koehn, Lips. 1828, containing Wigan's text, Latin version, dissertations, &c., together with Petit's Commentary, Triller's Emendations, and Maittaire's Index.

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Philosophers

Asterius

Asterius of Cappadocia, a Greek sophist, a friend of Arius, and also his fellow student in the school of Lucian of Antioch. St. Athanasius quotes more than once from a pro-Arian work of this writer. He wrote commentaries on the Epistle to the Romans, the Gospels, the Psalms, and "many other works' (Jerome, De Vir. Ill., c. xciv) , all of which have perished ( Zahn, Marcellus von Ancyra, Gotha, l867, 68 sqq.)

Eustathius

Eustathius, of Cappadocia, a New Platonist, was a pupil of Iamblichus and Aedesius. When the latter was obliged to quit Cappadocia, Eustathius was left behind in his place. Eunapius, to whom alone we are indebted for our knowledge of Eustathius, declares that he was the best man and a great orator, whose speech in sweetness equalled the songs of the Seirens. His reputation was so great, that when the Persians besieged Antioch, and the empire was threatened with a war, the emperor Constantius was prevailed upon to send Eustathius, although he was a pagan, as ambassador to king Sapor, in A. D. 358, who is said to have been quite enchanted by the oratory of the Greek. this countrymen and friends who longed for his return, sent deputies to him, but he refused to come back to his country on account of certain signs and prodigies. His wife Sosipatra is said to have even excelled her husband in talent and learning. (Eunap. Vit. Soph., ed. Hadr. Junius; comp. Brucker, Hist. Crit. Philos. vol. ii.)

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Eustochius

Eustochius, (Eustochios), a Cappadocian sophist of the time of the emperor Constans. He wrote a history of the life of that emperor and a work on the antiquities of Cappadocia and other countries. (Snid. s. v. Eustochios; Steph. Byz. s. zv. Pantikapaion.)

Related to the place

Glaphyra

Glaphyra, (Glaphura), an hetaera, whose charms, it is said, chiefly induced Antony to give tile kingdom of Cappadocia to her son Archelaus, in B. C. 34. (Dion Cass. xlix. 32; App. Bell. Civ. v. 7; comp. Vol. I.)

Dynasties

Ariarathes

Ariarathes. There are a great many Persian names beginning with Aria-, Ario-, and Art-, which all contain the root Ar, which is seen in Artaioi, the ancient national name of the Persians (Herod. vii. 61), and Arioi or Areioi, likewise an ancient designation of the inhabitants of the table-land of Persia (Herod. iii. 93, vii. 62). Dr. Rosen, to whom we are indebted for these remarks, also observes that the name Arii is the same with the Sanscrit word Arya, by which in the writings of the Hindus the followers of the Brahmanical law are designated. He shews that Arya signifies in Sanscrit "honourable, entitled to respect", and Arta, in all probability,"honoured, respected". In Aria-rathes, the latter part of the word apparently is the same as the Zend ratu, "great, master", and the name would therefore signify "an honourable master".
  Ariarathes was the name of several kings of Cappadocia, who traced their origin to Anaphas, one of the seven Persian chiefs who slew the Magi.

I. The son of Ariamnes I., was distinguished for his love of his brother Holophernes, whom he sent to assist Ochus in the recovery of Egypt, B. C. 350. After the death of Alexander, Perdiccas appointed Eumenes governor of Cappadocia; but upon Ariarathes refusing to submit to Eumenes, Perdiccas made war upon him. Ariarathes was defeated, taken prisoner, and crucified, together with many of his relations, B. C. 322. Eumenes then obtained possession of Cappadocia. Ariarathes was 82 years of age at the time of his death : he had adopted as his son, Ariarathes, the eldest son of his brother Holophernes (Diod. xxxi. Ed. 3, where it is stated that he fell in battle; Diod. xviii. 16; Arrian, ap. Phot. Cod. 92; Appian, Mithr. 8; Lucian, Macrob. 13; Plut. Eumen. 3; Justin, xiii. 6, whose account is quite erroneous).
II. Son of Holophernes, fled into Armenia after the death of Ariarathes I. After the death of Eumenes, B. C. 315, he recovered Cappadocia with the assistance of Ardoates, the Armenian king, and killed Amyntas, the Macedonian governor. He was succeeded by Ariamnes II., the eldest of his three sons (Diod. xxxi. Ecl. 3).
III. Son of Ariamnes II., and grandson of the preceding, married Stratonice, a daughter of Antiochus II., king of Syria, and obtained a share in the government during the life-time of his father (Diod.).
IV. Son of the preceding, was a child at his accession, and reigned B. C. 220-163, about 57 years (Diod.; Justin. xxix. 1; Polyb. iv. 2). He married Antiochis, the daughter of Antiochus III., king of Syria, and, in consequence of this alliance, assisted Antiochus in his war against the Romans. After the defeat of Antiochus by the Romans, B. C. 190, Ariarathes sued for peace in 188, which he obtained on favourable terms, as his daughter was about that time betrothed to Eumenes, the ally of the Romans. In B. C. 183-179, he assisted Eumenes in his war against Pharnaces. Polybius mentions that a Roman embassy was sent to Ariarathes after the death of Antiochus IV., who died B. C. 164. Antiochis, the wife of Ariarathes, at first bore him no children, and accordingly introduced two supposititious ones, who were called Ariarathes and Holophernes. Subsequently, however, she bore her husband two daughters and a son, Mithridates, afterwards Ariarathes V., and then informed Ariarathes of the deceit she had practised upon him. The other two were in consequence sent away from Cappadocia, one to Rome, the other to Ionia (Liv. xxxvii. 31, xxxviii. 38, 39; Polyb. xxii. 24, xxv. 2, 4, xxvi. 6, xxxi. 12, 13; Appian, Syr. 5, 32, 42; Diod.).
V. Son of the preceding, previously called Mithridates, reigned 33 years, B. C. 163-130. He was surnamed Philopator, and was distinguished by the excellence of his character and his cultivation of philosophy and the liberal arts. According to Livy (xlii. 19), he was educated at Rome; but this account may perhaps refer to the other Ariarathes, one of the supposititious sons of the late king. In consequence of rejecting, at the wish of the Romans, a marriage with the sister of Demetrius Soter, the latter made war upon him, and brought forward Holophernes, one of the supposititious sons of the late king, as a claimant of the throne. Ariarathes was deprived of his kingdom, and fled to Rome about B. C. 158. He was restored by the Romans, who, however, appear to have allowed Holophernes to reign jointly with him, as is expressly stated by Appian (Syr. 47), and implied by Polybius (xxxii. 20). The joint government, however, did not last long; for we find Ariarathes shortly afterwards named as sole king. In B. C. 154, Ariarathes assisted Attalus in his war against Prusias, and sent his son Demetrius in command of his forces. He fell in B. C. 130, in the war of the Romans against Aristonicus of Pergamus. In return for the succours which he had brought the Romans on that occasion, Lycaonia and Cilicia were added to the dominions of his family. By his wife Laodice he had six children; but they were all, with the exception of the youngest, killed by their mother, that she might obtain the government of the kingdom. After she had been put to death by the people on account of her cruelty, her youngest son succeeded to the crown. (Diod. l. c., Exc. xxiv.; Polyb. iii. 5, xxxii. 20, 23, xxxiii. 12; Justin, xxxv. 1, xxxvii. 1).
VI. The youngest son of the preceding, reigned about 34 years, B. C. 130-96. He was a child at his succession. He married Laodice, the sister of Mithridates Eupator, king of Pontus, and was put to death by Mithridates by means of Gordius (Justin, xxxvii. 1, xxxviii. 1; Memnon, ap. Phot. Cod. 224). On his death the kingdom was seized by Nicomedes, king of Bithynia, who married Laodice, the widow of the late king. But Nicomedes was coon expelled by Mithridates, who placed upon the throne,
VII. A son of Ariarathes VI. He was, however, also murdered by Mithridates in a short time, who now took possession of his kingdom (Justin, xxxviii. 1). The Cappadocians rebelled against Mithridates, and placed upon the throne,
VIII. A second son of Ariarathes VI.; but he was speedily driven out of the kingdom by Mithridates, and shortly afterwards died a natural death. By the death of these two sons of Ariarathes VI., the royal family was extinct. Mithridates placed upon the throne one of his own sons, who was only eight years old. Nicomedes sent an embassy to Rome to lay claim to the throne for a youth, who, he pretended, was a third son of Ariarathes VI. and Laodice. Mithridates also, with equal shamelessness, says Justin, sent an embassy to Rome to assert that the youth, whom he had placed upon the throne, was a descendant of Ariarathes V., who fell in the war against Aristonicus. The senate, however, did not assign the kingdom to either, but granted liberty to the Cappadocians. But as the people wished for a king, the Romans allowed them to choose whom they pleased, and their choice fell upon Ariobarzanes (Justin, xxxviii. 1, 2; Strab. xii.).
IX. A son of Ariobarzanes II., and brother of Ariobarzanes III. (Cic. ad Fam. xv. 2), reigned six years, B. C. 42-36. When Caesar had confirmed Ariobarzanes III. in this kingdom, he placed Ariarathes under his brother's government. Ariarathes succeeded to the crown after the battle of Philippi, but was deposed and put to death by Antony, who appointed Archelaus as his successor (Appian, B. C. v. 7; Dion Cass. xlix. 32; Val. Max. ix. 15, ex. 2). Clinton makes this Ariarathes the son of Ariobarzanes III. (whom he calls the second); but as there were three kings of the name of Ariobarzanes, grandfather, son, and grandson, and Strabo (xii.) says that the family became extinct in three generations, it seems most probable, that this Ariarathes was a brother of Ariobarzanes III. Cicero (ad Att. xiii. 2) speaks of an Ariarathes, a son of Ariobarzanes, who came to Rome in B. C. 45; but there seems no reason to believe that he was a different person from the one mentioned above, the son of Ariobarzanes II.

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Nov 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


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