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Listed 24 sub titles with search on: Biographies  for wider area of: "KROTON Ancient city CALABRIA" .

Biographies (24)



KROTON (Ancient city) CALABRIA
A celebrated athlete of Crotona, who had thrice gained the victory at the Pythian Games. He fought at the battle of Salamis, B.C. 480, in a ship fitted out at his own expense.

Phayllus : Perseus Encyclopedia

Phaylus of Crotona

There is a statue at Delphi of Phaylus of Crotona. He won no victory at Olympia, but his victories at Pytho were two in the pentathlum and one in the foot-race. He also fought at sea against the Persian, in a ship of his own, equipped by himself and manned by citizens of Crotona who were staying in Greece. Such is the story of the athlete of Crotona.



Democedes. A celebrated physician of Crotona. He practised medicine successively at Aegina, Athens, and Samos. He was taken prisoner by the Persians, in B.C. 522, and was sent to Susa to the court of Darius. Here he acquired great reputation by curing the king's foot and the breast of the queen Atossa. Notwithstanding his honours at the Persian court he was always desirous of returning to his native country, and in order to effect this, he procured by means of Atossa that he should be sent with some nobles to explore the coast of Greece and to ascertain in what parts it might be most successfully attacked. At Tarentum he escaped, and settled at Crotona, where he married the daughter of the famous wrestler Milo.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Democedes, (Demokedes), the son of Calliphon, a celebrated physician of Crotona, in Magna Graecia, who lived in the sixth century B. C. He left his native country and went to Aegina, where he received from the public treasury the sum of one talent per annum for his medical services, i. e. (if we reckon, with Hussey, Ancient Weights and Money, §c., the Aeginetan drachma to be worth one shilling and a penny three farthings) not quite 344l. The next year he went to Athens, where he was paid one hundred minae, i. e. rather more than 406l.; and the year following he removed to the island of Samos in the Aegean sea, and received from Polycrates, the tyrant, the increased salary of two talents, i. e. (if the Attic standard be meant) 487l. 10s. (Herod. iii. 131.) He accompanied Polycrates when he was seized and put to death by Oroetes, the Persian governor of Sardis (B. C. 522), by whom he was himself seized and carried prisoner to Susa to the court of Dareius, the son of Hystaspes. Here he acquired great riches and reputation by curing the king's foot, and the breast of the queen Atossa. (Ibid. c. 133.) It is added by Dion Chrysostom (Dissert. i. De Invid.), that Dareius ordered the physicians who had been unable to cure him to be put to death, and that they were saved at the intercession of Democedes. Notwithstanding his honours at the Persian court, he was always desirous of returning to his native country. In order to effect this, he pretended to enter into the views and interests of the Persians, and procured by means of Atossa that he should be sent with some nobles to explore the coast of Greece, and ascertain in what parts it might be most successfully attacked. When they arrived at Tarentum, the king, Aristophilides, out of kindness to Democedes, seized the Persians as spies, which afforded the physician an opportunity of escaping to Crotona. Here he finally settled, and married the daughter of the famous wrestler, Milo; the Persians having followed him to Crotona, and in vain demanded that he should be restored. (Herod. iii. 137.) According to Suidas (s. v.) he wrote a work on Medicine. He is mentioned also by Aelian (V. H. viii. 17) and John Tzetzes (Hist. ix. 3); and Dion Cassius names him with Hippocrates (xxxviii. 18) as two of the most celebrated physicians of antiquity. By Dion Chrysostom he is called by mistake Denmodocus.

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Theano (5th c BC)

Discipline and wife of Pythagoras. She was credited with writing important treatises on physics, mathematics and psychology.

Theano. A celebrated female philosopher of the Pythagorean School, appears to have been the wife of Pythagoras, and the mother by him of Telauges, Mnesarchus, Myia , and Arignote; but the accounts respecting her were various. Letters ascribed to her, but not genuine, exist, and are edited by Hercher (1873).

Theano : Various WebPages

Theano of Kroton (c. 550 BC-)

  Theano was the wife of Pythagoras. She and her two daughters carried on the Pythagorean School after the death of Pythagoras.
  She wrote treatises on mathematics, physics, medicine, and child psychology.

This extract is cited July 2003 from the Malaspina Great Books URL below.



Of Crotona: wins prize for singing at Pythian games.



Pythagorean philosopher (5th/4th c.BC). He worked as a teacher for a while in Thebes, Greece and he was the first to publish a book with his teacher's theories.

   Philolaus, (Philolaos). A distinguished Pythagorean philosopher. He was a native of Croton or Tarentum, a contemporary of Socrates, and the instructor of Simmias and Cebes at Thebes, where he appears to have lived many years. Pythagoras and his earliest successors did not commit any of their doctrines to writing, and the first publication of the Pythagorean doctrines is pretty uniformly attributed to Philolaus. He composed a work on the Pythagorean philosophy in three books, which Plato is said to have procured at the cost of 100 minae through Dion of Syracuse, who purchased it from Philolaus, who was at the time in deep poverty. Other versions of the story represent Plato as purchasing it himself from Philolaus or his relatives when in Sicily. Plato is said to have derived from this work the greater part of his Timaeus.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Alcmaeon (Alkmaion), one of the most emlinent natural philosophers of antiquity, was a native of Crotona in Magna Graecia. His father's name was Pirithus, and he is said to have been a pupil of Pythagoras, and must therefore have lived in the latter half of the sixth century before Christ (Diog. Laert. viii. 83). Nothing more is known of the events of his life. His most celebrated anatomical discovery has been noticed in the Dict. of Ant. p. 756, a; but whether his knowledge in this branch of science was derived from the dissection of animals or of human bodies, is a disputed question, which it is difficult to decide. Chalcidius, on whose authority the fact rests, merely says, " qui primus exsectionem aggredi est ausus" and the word exsectio would apply equally well to either case. He is said also to have been the first person who wrote on natural philosophy (Phusikon logon), and to have invented fables. He also wrote several other medical and philosophical works, of which nothing but the titles and a few fragments have been preserved by Stobaeus Plutarch and Galen. A further account of his philosophical opinions may be found in Menage's Notes to Diogenes Laertius.
  Although Alcmaeon is termed a pupil of Pythagoras, there is great reason to doubt whether he was a Pythagorean at all; his name seems to have crept into the lists of supposititious Pythagoreans given us by later writers. Aristotle (Metaphys. A. 5) mentions him as nearly contemporary with Pythagoras, but distinguishes between the stoicheia of opposites, under which the Pythagoreans included all things, and the double principle of Alcmaeon, according to Aristotle, less extended, although he does not explain the precise difference. Other doctrines of Alcmaaeon have been preserved to us. He said that the human soul was immortal and partook of the divine nature, because like the heavenly bodies it contained in itself a principle of motion. The eclipse of the moon, which was also eternal, he supposed to arise from its shape, which he said was like a boat. All his doctrines which have come down to us, relate to physics or medicine; and seem to have arisen partly out of the speculations of the Ionian school, with which rather than the Pythagorean, Aristotle appears to connect Alcmaeon, partly front the traditionary lore of the earliest medical science.

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Aresas, of Lucania, and probably of Croton, was at the head of the Pythagorean school, and the sixth in succession from Pythagoras. Some attribute to him a work "about Human Nature", of which a fragment is preserved by Stobaeus; but others suppose it to have been written by Aesara.


Aristaeus (Aristaios), the son of Damophon, of Croton, a Pythagoraean philosopher, who succeeded Pythagoras as head of the school, and married his widow Theano (Iambl. c. 36). He was the author of several mathematical works, which Euclid used (Pappus, lib. vii. Mathem. Coll. init.). Stobaeus has given an extract from a work on Harmony (Pepi Harmonias), by Aristaeon, who may be the same as this Aristaeus.


Diodorus, of Croton, a Pythagorean philosopher, who is otherwise unknown. (Iamblich. Vit. Pythag. 35.)


Eurytus, (Eurutos), an eminent Pythagorean philosopher, whom Iamblichus in one passage (de Vit. Pyth. 28) describes as a native of Croton, while in another (ibidd. 36) he enumerates him among the Tarentine Pythagoreans. He was a disciple of Philolaus, and Diogenes Laertius (iii. 6, viii. 46) mentions him among the teachers of Plato, though this statement is very doubtful. It is uncertain whether Eurytus was the author of any work, unless we suppose that the fragment in Stobaeus (Phys. Ecl. i.), which is there ascribed to one Eurytus, belongs to our Eurytus. (Ritter, Gesch. der Pythag. Philos.)


Hippostratus, (Hippostratos). A native of Crotona, mentioned by Iamblichus in his list of Pythagorean philosophers. (Vit. Pyth. c. 36.267.)


A Hellenistic Bibliography: Orphica



Aristomachus, the leader of the popular party at Croton, in the Hannibalian war, about B. C. 215. At that time nearly all the towns of southern Italy were divided into two parties, the people being in favour of the Carthaginians, and the nobles or senators in favour of the Romans. The Bruttians, who were in alliance with the Carthaginians, had hoped to gain possession of Croton with their assistance. As this had not been done, they determined to make the conquest by themselves. A deserter from Croton informed them of the state of political parties there, and that Aristomachus was ready to surrender the town to them. The Bruttians marched with an army against Croton, and as the lower parts, which were inhabited by the people, were open and easy of access, they soon gained possession of them. Aristomachus, however, as if he had nothing to do with the Bruttians, withdrew to the arx, where the nobles were assembled and defended themselves. The Bruttians in conjunction with the people of Croton besieged the nobles in the arx, and when they found that they made no impression, they applied to Hanno the Carthaginian for assistance. He proposed to the Crotoniats to receive the Bruttians as colonists within the extensive but deserted walls of their city; but all the Crotoniats, with the exception of Aristomachus, declared that they would rather die than submit to this. As Aristomachus, who had betrayed the town, was unable to betray the arx also, he saw no way but to take to flight, and he accordingly went over to Hanno. The Crotoniats soon after quitted their town altogether and migrated to Locri. (Liv. xxiv. 2, 3)

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks



Now at this time, (510 bc) as the Sybarites say, they and their king Telys were making ready to march against Croton, and the men of Croton, who were very much afraid, entreated Dorieus to come to their aid. Their request was granted, and Dorieus marched with them to Sybaris helping them to take it. This is the story which the Sybarites tell of Dorieus and his companions, but the Crotoniats say that they were aided by no stranger in their war with Sybaris with the exception of Callias, an Elean diviner of the Iamid clan. About him there was a story that he had fled to Croton from Telys, the tyrant of Sybaris, because as he was sacrificing for victory over Croton, he could obtain no favorable omens.

Callias (Kallias), a soothsayer of the sacred Elean family of the Iamidae. (Pind. Olymp. vi.), who, according to the account of the Crotonians, came over to their ranks from those of Sybaris, when he saw that the sacrifices foreboded destruction to the latter, B. C. 510. His services to Crotona were rewarded by an allotment of land, of which his descendants were still in possession when Herodotus wrote. (Herod. v. 44, 45.)

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