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Biographies (23)



, , 557 - 468

   Of Ceos, one of the most celebrated lyric poets of Greece. He was the perfecter of the Elegy and Epigram, and the rival of Lasus and Pindar in the Dithyramb and the Epinician Ode. He was born at Iulis, in Ceos, B.C. 556, and was the son of Leoprepes. He appears to have been brought up to music and poetry as a profession. From his native island he proceeded to Athens, probably on the invitation of Hipparchus, who attached him to his society by great rewards. After remaining at Athens some time, probably even after the expulsion of Hippias, he went to Thessaly, where he lived under the patronage of the Aleuads and Scopads. He afterwards returned to Athens, and soon had the noblest opportunity of employing his poetic powers in the celebration of the great events of the Persian Wars. In 489 he conquered Aeschylus in the contest for the prize which the Athenians offered for an elegy on those who fell at Marathon. Ten years later he composed the epigrams which were inscribed upon the tomb of the Spartans who fell at Thermopylae, as well as an encomium on the same heroes; and he also celebrated the battles of Artemisium and Salamis, and the great men who commanded in them. He had completed his eightieth year, when his long poetical career at Athens was crowned by the victory which he gained with the dithyrambic chorus (477), being the fifty-sixth prize which he had carried off. Shortly after this he was invited to Syracuse by Hiero, at whose court he lived till his death in 467.
    Simonides was a great favourite with Hiero, and was treated by the tyrant with the greatest munificence. He still continued, when at Syracuse, to employ his talents occasionally in the service of other Grecian States. Simonides is said to have been the inventor of the mnemonic art and of the long vowels and double letters in the Greek alphabet. He made literature a profession, and is said to have been the first who took money for his poems; and the reproach of avarice is too often brought against him by his contemporary and rival, Pindar, as well as by subsequent writers, to be altogether discredited. The chief characteristics of the poetry of Simonides were sweetness (whence his surname of Melicertes) and elaborate finish, combined with the truest poetic conception and perfect power of expression; though in originality and fervour he was far inferior, not only to the early lyric poets, such as Sappho and Alcaeus, but also to his contemporary Pindar. He was probably both the most prolific and the most universally popular of all the Grecian lyric poets. The general character of his dialect is the Epic, mingled with Doric and Aeolic forms.
   Leoprepides. The poet Simonides, as son of Leoprepes (Herod. vii. 228).

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

The Shipwreck of Simonides, Phaedrus, The Fables of Phaedrus (ed. Christopher Smart)

   Epigramma: Properly an inscription, such as was often written upon a tomb, a votive offering, a present, a work of art, and the like, to describe its character. Inscriptions of this sort were from early times put into metrical form, and the writer generally tried to combine good sense and spirit in them. They were generally, though not always, written in the elegiac metre. The greatest master of Greek epigram was Simonides of Ceos, the author of several of the sepulchral inscriptions on the warriors who fell in the Persian Wars. His lines are remarkable for repose, clearness, and force, both of thought and expression (. . .)

This extract is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

   Elegia: a distich consisting of an hexameter line followed by a pentameter; then in the plural, a collection of such distichs, and hence elegeia). The general term in Greek for any poem written in the elegiac metre, a combination of the dactylic hexameter and pentameter in a couplet. The word elegos is probably not Greek, but borrowed from the Lydians, and means a plaintive melody accompanied by the flute. How it happened that the word was applied to elegiac poetry, the earliest representatives of which by no means confined it to mournful subjects, is doubtful. It may be that the term was chosen only in reference to the musical setting, the elegy having originally been accompanied by the flute.
   Like the epic, the elegy was a production of the Ionians of Asia Minor. (See Epos.) Its dialect was the same as that of the epos, and its metre only a variation of the epic metre, the pentameter being no more than an abbreviation of the hexameter. The elegy marks the first transition from the epic to lyric proper ( . . .)
   The elegy of mourning or sorrow was brought to perfection by Simonides of Ceos. After him the emotional element predominated.

This extract is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Simonides of Ceos. Poet from Ceos who lived both in Athens and Thessaly. In Athens he became famous for celebrating the heroes and battles against the Persians. He is said to have written some of the epigrams that were put on plaques at Thermopyle in memorandum of the great battle between the Greeks and the Persians. One of them said “Here fought once against three million barbarians, four thousand Peloponnesian men.”
  His last years were spent on Sicily, at the court of the tyrant Hero in Syracusae.

This text is cited Sept 2003 from the In2Greece URL below.

Simonides, son of Leoprepes

A lyric poet (6th cent. B.C.). He was the grandson of Simonides Senior.

Bacchylides, 5th c. B.C.

Bacchylides (Bakchulides). A Greek lyric poet who flourished in the middle of the fifth century B.C. He was a native of Iulis in the island of Ceos, the nephew and pupil of Simonides, and a contemporary of Pindar. For a long time he lived with his uncle at the court of Hiero, tyrant of Syracuse. He also resided for a considerable time at Athens, where he won many victories in the dithyrambic contests. Later on his home was in the Peloponnesus. It would appear that he attempted to rival the many-sided talent of his uncle, but was inferior to him in sublimity and force. He attempted a great variety of styles: hymns, paeans, dithyrambs, drinking-songs, love-songs, and epigrams. Only fragments were known to exist until 1897, when the British Museum announced the discovery on an Egyptian papyrus of some 15 to 20 lyrics varying in length from 14 to 200 lines, but with serious lacunae.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Bacchylides (Bakchulides). One of the great lyric poets of Greece, was a native of Iulis in the island of Ceos, and the nephew as well as fellow-townsman of Simonides. (Strab. x.; Steph. Byz. s. v. Ioulis.) His father is variously called Medon (Suidas, s. v. Bakchulides), Meilon (Epigr. in novem Lyr. ap. Bockh, Schol. Pind.), or Meidylus (Etym. M.): his paternal grandfather was the athlete Bacchylides. We know nothing of his life, except that he lived at the court of Hiero in Syracuse, together with Simonides and Pindar. (Aelian, V. H. iv. 15.) Eusebius makes him flourish in B. C. 450; but as Hiero died B. C. 467, and Bacchylides obtained great fame at his court, his poetical reputation must have been established as early as B. C. 470. The Scholiast on Pindar frequently states (ad Ol. ii. 154, 155, ad Pyth. ii. 131, 161, 166, 167, 171) that Bacchylides and Pindar were jealous of and opposed to one another; but whether this was the fact, or the story is to be attributed to the love of scandal which distinguishes the later Greek grammarians, it is impossible to determine.
  The poems of Bacchylides were numerous and of various kinds. They consisted of Epinici (songs, like Pindar's, in honour of the victors in the public games), Hymns, Paeans, Dithyrambs, Prosodia, Hyporchemata, Erotica, and Paroenia or Drinking-songs : but all of these have perished with the exception of a few fragments. It is, therefore, difficult to form an independent opinion of their poetical value; but as far as we can judge from what has come down to us, Bacchylides was distinguished, like Simonides, for the elegance and finish of his compositions. He was inferior to Pindar in strength and energy, as Longinus remarks (c. 33); and in his lamentations over the inexorable character of fate, and the necessity of submitting to death, he reminds one of the Ionic elegy. Like his predecessors in Lyric poetry, he wrote in the Doric dialect, but frequently introduces Attic forms, so that the dialect of his poems very much resembles that of the choruses in the Attic tragedies.
  Besides his lyrical poems there are two epigrams in the Greek Anthology attributed to Bacchylides, one in the Doric and the other in the Ionic dialect, and there seems no reason to doubt their genuineness.

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Sep 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Bacchylides. Lyric poet from Ceos who was the nephew (through his mother) of Simonides. Bacchylides wrote dithyrambs (narrative poems with mythological subjects, sung by a chorus with one solo singer) and took part in poetry competitions in Athens. For example, he wrote two imaginary episodes from the life of Theseus and a poem about Croesus.
  He called himself “the nightingale of Ceos”. Both Bacchylides and his uncle Simonides were rivals to Pindar. They went to Syracusae and together they wrote victory odes for Hieron of Syracusae, among others a tribute to Hieron's victory at the horse races in the Olympic Games in 476 BC.
  His style was genuine and clear and he had a narrative talent, but is generally considered not to have been a genius. 14 victory odes and 6 dithyrambs of his survive to this day.

This text is cited Sept 2003 from the In2Greece URL below.

Editor’s Information
The e-texts of the works by Bacchylides are found in Greece (ancient country) under the category Ancient Greek Writings.


Prodicus, 5th c. B.C.

A Greek Sophist of Ceos, contemporary with Socrates. He repeatedly visited Athens as an ambassador from his native country. The applause which his speeches gained there induced him to come forward as a rhetorician. In his lectures on literary style he laid chief stress on the right use of words and the accurate discrimination between synonyms, and thereby paved the way for the dialectic discussions of Socrates.. None of his lectures has come down to us in its original form. We have the substance only of his celebrated fable of the Choice of Heracles preserved by Xenophon


  Prodicus, one of the sophists most often mentioned by Plato in his dialogues, was born in the city of Iulis, in the island of Ceos, an Athenian colony off the coast of Attica east of Cape Sunium.
  The exact date of his birth is not known, nor is that of his death, but, based on various indications about his relative age compared to other sophists and philosophers of the time, he must have been born around 460 and he most likely died after Socrates, as the latter talks about him in the present tense in the Apology.
  Prodicus often came to Athens, either for public missions or for private business. He made a lot of money there, giving public readings of his works and expensive lessons to wealthy pupils. Some of those who are variously mentioned as having attended his lessons include Isocrates, Euripides and the historian Thucydides. He must have been very famous there during his lifetime, as Aristophanes simply mentions him by name. He seems to have specialized in the precise definition of words and subtle distinction between near synonyms.
  Not much is left of his works except for two or three titles and a few quotations or references here and there. Yet, based on what we know from these sources, he must have been an all-around sophist and rhetorician, writing on many subjects, including natural sciences. Prodicus is probably the sophist Plato feels most sympathetic toward. Though he often rdicules him, he also presents him as a teacher and friend of Socrates in a way that doesn't owe everything to irony.

Bernard Suzanne (page last updated 1998), ed.
This extract is cited July 2003 from the Plato and his dialogues URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks.

Ariston, peripatetic, 3rd ce. BC

Ariston, a Peripatetic philosopher and a native of the island of Ceos, where his birthplace was the town of Julis, whence he is sometimes called Keios and sometimes Ioulietes. He was a pupil of Lycon (Diog. Laert. v. 70, 74), who was the successor of Straton as the head of the Peripatetic school, about B. C. 270. After the death of Lycon, about B. C. 230, Ariston succeeded him in the management of the school. Ariston, who was, according to Cicero (de Fin. v. 5), a man of taste and elegance, was yet deficient in gravity and energy, which prevented his writings acquiring that popularity which they otherwise deserved, and may have been one of the causes of their neglect and loss to us. In his philosophical views, it we may judge from the scanty fragments still extant, he seems to have followed his master pretty closely. Diogenes Laertius (vii. 163), after enumerating the works of Ariston of Chios, says, that Panaetius and Sosicrates attributed all those works, except the letters, to the Peripatetic Ariston (of Ceos). How far this opinion is correct, we cannot, of course, say; at any rate, however, one of those works, Erotikai diatribai, is repeatedly ascribed to the Cean by Athenaeus (x., xiii., xv.), who calls it Erotika homoia. One work of the Cean not mentioned by Diogenes, was entitled Lukon (Plut. de Aud. poet. 1), in gratitude to his master. There are also two epigrams in the Greek Anthology (vi. 303, and vii. 457), which are commonly attributed to Ariston of Ceos, though there is no evidence for it.

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Now I tell you that sophistry is an ancient art, and those men of ancient times who practised it, fearing the odium it involved, disguised it in a decent dress, sometimes of poetry, as in the case of Homer, Hesiod, and Simonides sometimes of mystic rites and soothsayings, as did Orpheus, Musaeus and their sects; and sometimes too, I have observed, of athletics, as with Iccus of Tarentum and another still living -as great a sophist as any- Herodicus of Selymbria, originally of Megara; and music was the disguise employed by your own Agathocles, a great sophist, Pythocleides of Ceos(Plato, Prot. 316d)
Aristotle says he had a thorough musical training at the hands of Pythocleides.(Plutarch, Per. 4.1)

Theramenes, son of Agnon


Erasistratus of Ceos

, , 304 - 250

Anatomist and pathologist, author of many medical issues, he is believed to have discovered the blood circulation.

Erasistratus, (Erasistratos), one of the most celebrated physicians and anatomists of antiquity, is generally supposed to have been born at Iulis in the island of Ceos (Suidas, s. v. Eradistr.; Strab. x. 5, ed. Tauchn.), though Stephanus Byzantinus (s. v. Kos) calls him a native of Cos, Galen of Chios (Introd. c. 4, vol. xiv.), and the emperor Julian of Samos. (Misopog.) Pliny says he was the grandson of Aristotle by his daughter Pythias (H. N. xxix. 3), but this is not confirmed by any other ancient writer; and according to Suidas, he was the son of Cretoxena, the sister of the physician Medius, and Cleombrotus ; from which expression it is not quite clear whether Cleombrotus was his father or his uncle. He was a pupil of Chrysippus of Cnidos (Diog. Laert. vii. 7.10, Plin. H. N. xxix. 3 ; Galen, de Ven. Sect. adv. Erasistr. c. 7, vol. xi.), Metrodorus (Sext. Empir. c. Mathem. i. 12, ed. Fabric.) and apparently Theophrastus. (Galen, de Sang. in Arter. c. 7, vol. iv.) He lived for some time at the court of Seleucus Nicator, king of Syria, where lie acquired great reputation by discovering the disease of Antiochus, the king's eldest son, probably B. C. 294. Seleucus in his old age had lately married Stratonice, the young and beautiful daughter of Demetrius Poliorcetes, and she had already borne him one child. (Plut. Demtetr. c. 38; Appian, de Rebus Syr. c. 59.) Antiochus fell violently in love with his mother-in-law, but did not disclose his passion, and chose rather to pine away in silence. The physicians were quite unable to discover the cause and nature of his disease, and Erasistratus himself was at a loss at first, till, finding nothing amiss about his body, he began to suspect that it must be his mind which was diseased, and that he might perhaps be in love. This conjecture was confirmed when he observed his skin to be hotter, his colour to be heightened, and his pulse quickened, whenever Stratonice came near him, while none of these symptoms occurred on any other occasion; and accordingly he told Seleucus that his son's disease was incurable, for that he was in love, and that it was impossible that his passion could be gratified. The king wondered what the difficulty could be, and asked who the lady was. " My wife," replied Erasistratus; upon which Seleucus began to persuade him to give her up to his son. The physician asked him if he would do so himself if it were his wife that the prince was in love with. The king protested that lie would most gladly; upon which Erasistratus told him that it was indeed his own wife who had inspired his passion, and that he chose rather to die than to disclose his secret. Seleucus was as good as his word, and not only gave up Stratonice, but also resigned to his son several provinces of his empire. This celebrated story is told with more or less variation by many ancient authors, (Appian, de Rebus Syr. c. 59-61; Galen, de Praenot. ad Epig. c. 6. vol. xiv.; Julian, Misopog., ed. Spanheim; Lucian, de Syria Dea; Plin. H. N. xxix. 3; Plut. Demetr. c. 38; Suidas, s. v. Erasistr.; Jo. Tzetz. Chil. vii. Hist. 118; Valer. Max. v. 7), and a similar anecdote has been told of Hippocrates (Soranus, Vita Hippocr. in Hippocr. Opera, vol. iii.), Galen (de Praenot. ad Epig. c. 6. vol. xiv.), Avicenna, and (if the names be not fictitious) Panacius (Aristaen. Epist. i. 13) and Acestinus. (Heliod. Aethiop. iv. 7.) If this is the anecdote referred to by Pliny (l. c.), as is probably the case, Erasistratus is said to have received one hundred talents for being the means of restoring the prince to health, which (supposing the Attic standard to be meant, and to be equal to 243l. 15s.) would amount to 24,375l.--one of the largest medical fees upon record.
  Very little more is known of the personal history of Erasistratus : he lived for some time at Alexandria, which was at that time beginning to be a celebrated medical school, and gave up practice in his old age, that he might pursue his anatomical studies without interruption. (Galen, de Hippocr. et Plat. Deer. vii. 3, vol. v.) He prosecuted his experiments and researches in this branch of medical science with great success, and with such ardour that he is said to have dissected criminals alive. (Cels. de Medic. i. praef.) He appears to have died in Asia Minor, as Suidas mentions that lie was buried by mount Mycale in Ionia. The exact date of his death is not known, but he probably lived to a good old age, as, according to Eusebius, he was alive B. C. 258, about forty years after the marriage of Antiochus and Stratonice. He had numerous pupils and followers, and a medical school bearing his name continued to exist at Smyrna in Ionia nearly till the time of Strabo, about the beginning of the Christian era. (Strab. xii. 8, sub fin.) The following are the names of the most celebrated physicians belonging to the sect founded by him : Apoemantes (Galen, de Venae Sect. adv. Erasistr. c. 2, vol. xi.), Apollonius Memphites, Apollophanes (Cael. Aurel. de Morb. Acut. ii. 33) Artemidorus, Charidemus, Chrysippus, Heraclides, Hermogenes, Hicesius, Martialis, Menodorus, Ptolemaeus, Strato, Xenophon. He wrote several works on anatomy, practical medicine, and pharmacy, of which only the titles remain, together with a great number of short fragments preserved by Galen, Caelius Aurelianus, and other ancient writers: these, however, are sufficient to enable us to form a tolerably correct idea of his opinions both as a physician and an anatomist. It is in the latter character that he is most celebrated, and perhaps there is no one of the ancient physicians that did more to promote that branch of medical science. He appears to have been very near the discovery of the circulation of the blood, for in a passage preserved by Galen (de Usu Part. vi. 12, vol. iii.) he expresses himself as follows :--" The vein (1) arises from the part where the arteries, that are distributed to the whole body, have their origin, and penetrates to the sanguineous [or right] ventricle; and the artery [or pulmonary vein] arises from the part where the veins have their origin, and penetrates to the pneumatic [or left] ventricle of the heart." The description is not very clear, but seems to shew that he supposed the venous and arterial systems to be more intimately connected than was generally believed; which is confirmed by another passage in which he is said to have differed from the other ancient anatomists, who supposed the veins to arise from the liver, and the arteries from the heart, and to have contended that the heart was the origin both of the veins and the arteries. (Galen, de Hippocr. et Plat. Decr. vi. 6, vol. v.) With these ideas, it can have been only his belief that the arteries contained air, and not blood, that hindered his anticipating Harvey's celebrated discovery. The tricuspid valves of the heart are generally said to have derived their name from Erasistratus ; but this appears to be an oversight, as Galen attributes it not to him, but to one of his followers. (De Hippocr. et Plat. Deer. vi. 6, vol. v.) He appears to have paid particular attention to the anatomy of the brain, and in a passage out of one of his works preserved by Galen (ibid. vii. 3, vol.) speaks as if he had himself dissected a human brain. Galen says (ibid.) that before Erasistratus had more closely examined into the origin of the nerves, he imagined that they arose from the dura mater and not from the substance of the brain; and that it was not till he was advanced in life that he satisfied himself by actual inspection that such was not the case. According to Rufus Ephesius, he divided the nerves into those of sensation and those of motion, of which the former he considered to be hollow and to arise from the membranes of the brain, the latter from the substance of the brain itself and of the cerebellum. (De Appell. Part. &c.) It is a remarkable instance at once of blindness and presumption, to find this acute physiologist venturing to assert, that the spleen (Galen, de Atra Bile, c. 7. vol. v.), the bile (id. de Facult. Natur. ii. 2, vol. ii.), and several other parts of the body (id. Comment. in Hippocr. " CDe Alim." iii. 14. vol. xv.), were entirely useless to animals. In the controversy that was carried on among the ancients as to whether fluids when drunk passed through the trachea into the lungs, or through the oesophagus into the stomach, Erasistratus maintained the latter opinion. (Plut. Sympos. vii. 1; Gell. xvii. 11, Macrob. Saturn. vii. 15.) He is also supposed to have been the first person who added to the word arteria, which had hitherto designated the canal leading from the mouth to the lungs, the epithet tracheia, to distinguish it from the arteries, and hence to have been the originator of the modern name trachea. He attributed the sensation of hunger to vacuity of the stomach, and said that the Scythians were accustomed to tie a belt tightly round their middle, to enable them to abstain from food for a longer time without suffering inconvenience. (Gell. xvi. 3.) The pneuma, or spiritual substance, played a very important part both in his system of physiology and pathology: he supposed it to enter the lungs by the trachea, thence to pass by the pulmonary veins into the heart, and thence to be diffused throughout the whole body by means of the arteries (Galen, de Differ. Puls. iv. 2, vol. viii., et alibi); that the use of respiration was to fill the arteries with air (id. de Usu Respir. c. l. vol. iv.); and that the pulsation of the arteries was caused by the movements of the pneuma. He accounted for diseases in the same way, and supposed that as long as the pneuma continued to fill the arteries and the blood was confined to the veins, the individual was in good health; but that when the blood from some cause or other got forced into the arteries, inflammation and fever was the consequence. (Galen, de Venae Sect. adv. Erasistr. c. 2. vol. xi., &c.; Plut. de Philosoph. Plac. v. 29.) Of his mode of cure the most remarkable peculiarity was his aversion to bloodletting and purgative medicines : he seems to have relied chiefly on diet and regimen, bathing, exercise, friction, and the most simple articles of the vegetable kingdom. In surgery he was celebrated for the invention of a catheter that bore his name, and was of the shape of a Roman S. (Galen, Introd. c. 13. vol. xiv.)
(1) He is speaking of the pulmonary artery, which received the name phleps arteriodes from Herophilus. See Ruf. Ephes. de Appell. Part. Corp. Hum.

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Erasistratus, (Erasistratos). A physician of Iulis, in the island of Ceos, and grandson of Aristotle by a daughter of this philosopher. After having frequented the schools of Chrysippus, Metrodorus, and Theophrastus, he passed some time at the court of Seleucus Nicator, where he gained great reputation by discovering the secret malady which preyed upon the young Antiochus, the son of the king, who was in love with his stepmother, Queen Stratonice . It was at Alexandria, however, that he principally practised. At last he refused altogether to visit the sick, and devoted himself entirely to the study of anatomy. The branches of this study which are indebted to him for new discoveries are, among others, the doctrine of the functions of the brain and that of the nervous system. He immortalized himself by the discovery of the viae lacteae; and he would seem to have come very near to that of the circulation of the blood. Comparative anatomy furnished him with the means of describing the brain much better than had ever been done before him. He also distinguished and gave names to the auricles of the heart. A singular doctrine of Erasistratus is that of the pneuma, or the spiritual substance which, according to him, fills the arteries, which we inhale in respiration, which from the lungs makes its way into the arteries, and then becomes the vital principle of the human system. As long as this spirit moves about in the arteries, and the blood in the veins, man enjoys health; but when, from some cause or other, the veins become contracted, the blood then spreads into the arteries and becomes the source of maladies; it produces fever when it enters into some noble part or into the great artery, and inflammations when it is found in the less noble parts or in the extremities of the arteries. Erasistratus rejected entirely blood-letting, as well as cathartics; he supplied their place with dieting, tepid bathing, vomiting, and exercise. In general, he was attached to simple remedies; he recognized what was subsequently termed idiosyncrasy, or the peculiar constitution of different individuals, which makes the same remedy act differently on different persons. A few fragments of the writings of Erasistratus have been preserved by Galen.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Aeschylides of Ceos, 3-2nd cent. BC


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