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Apostolos Thoma Doxiadis
, 1874 - 1942
Born in Stenimachos, he was a boarder at the Zarifeia Schools in Philippoupolis
before studying medicine in Vienna. He practiced medicine in Stenimachos and became
president of the Greek community there as well as of Orpheus, the Greek Philharmonic
Association (1903). In 1905 he married Evanthia Mezevyri with whom he had four
sons. During the Balkan Wars he served as a medic in the Bulgarian army.
In 1915 he moved to Athens where he held the following positions:
head of paediatrics at the Athens Polyclinic, a post in the Ministry of Relief
(which he renamed Ministry of Health and Welfare), becoming in 1928 vice minister
of Health. He also served as chairman of the Patriotic Hospital Fund, chairman
of the Panthracian Association and of the Irredentist Greek Committee. He wrote
many scientific papers in many languages.
This text is cited Apr 2003 from the Thracian Electronic Thesaurus URL below, of Democritus University of Thrace
Peucestas, satrap of
Macedonian officer in the army of Alexander the Great, satrap of
Peucestas was born in the Macedonian town Mieza (modern Naousa)
as the son of an otherwise unknown Alexander. The stages of his early career are
unknown to us and it is possible that he joined Alexander at a later stage of
his campaign. However this may be, Peucestas was present during the return from
the Punjab, which started in the summer of 326.
In a valuable document, he is mentioned as one of the thirty-three
trierarchs of the fleet that Alexander had built to ship his men to the Indian
Ocean. The word 'trierarch' means 'captain' but it seems that something more important
was meant in the present case, because all members of Alexander's inner circle
are mentioned as trierarchs. This makes it clear that Peucestas was an important
member of the royal court, and since he did nothing special during the earlier
campaigns, we may assume that he was a member of the highest Macedonian nobility.
Perhaps he was a younger youth friend of the Macedonian crown prince.
The nations along the Indus offered resistance against Alexander's
navy and army. In January 325, the Macedonians had to fight themselves a way through
the country of the Mallians (Indian Malava). During the siege of their capital,
modern Multan, Alexander was seriously wounded. He owed his survival to Leonnatus,
Abreas and Peucestas, who protected the king with a sacred shield that Alexander
had taken away from Troy.
One year later, Peucestas was rewarded with a golden diadem. This
was an exceptionally high honor, because only three others received this sign
of esteem. He was also appointed satrap of the heartland of the former Achaemenid
empire, Persis. In this quality, he commanded a company of Persian soldiers that
were to replace the Macedonian veterans (early 323).
Peucestas was still one of the members of Alexander inner when the
great conqueror died: he was present at the drinking party of Medius that was
to be Alexander's last supper, and he slept in the temple of Serapis, hoping to
receive in his dreams instructions about the cure of the king.
In the confused period of the Diadochi, which began with the death
of Alexander (June 11, 323), Peucestas remained satrap of Persis. Both Perdiccas
and Antipater, who served as regents for Alexander's brother Arridaeus, reinvested
him in his function (at the settlements of Babylon in June 323 and Triparadisus).
It must have been difficult to ignore him, because he was the only Macedonian
who had taken the trouble to learn the Persian language.
In 317, one of Alexander's successors, Peithon the satrap of Media,
tried to subdue the leaders of the eastern provinces. Peucestas and the other
satraps united and offered resistance. Their common army was still at Susa
when Eumenes arrived, the former secretary of Alexander. The regent Polyperchon
had appointed him as commander of an army in Asia that had to resist Antigonus
Monophthalmus, a general with plans identical to Peithon's.
Peucestas wanted to remain neutral, but was forced to join Eumenes'
army. After all, Eumenes was still fighting for the sake of the Macedonian royal
house. Antigonus and Eumenes joined battle in Paraetacene (near modern Esfahan),
but the engagement remained undecided. In the spring of 316, a second battle was
fought in the district of Gabiene (near Susa). Peucestas, who was an unwilling
ally of Eumenes, deliberately retreated from the battle field, which gave Antigonus
an opportunity to defeat his enemy.
After the battle, Peucestas surrendered to Antigonus, but he was not
reinstated. Peucestas' later career is unknown, but is seems that he survived
Antigonus and was one of the favorites of his son Demetrius.
Peucestas is not to be confused with his namesake, a military commander
Jona Lendering, ed.
This text is cited July 2003 from the Livius Ancient History Website URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks.