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Listed 92 sub titles with search on: Biographies  for wider area of: "CRETE Island GREECE" .

Biographies (92)


Minotis Alexis

, , 1900 - 1990
Also, a stage director.


Xanthoudidis Stefanos

, , 1864 - 1928


Chersiphron of Cnosus, 6th cent. BC

KNOSSOS (Minoan settlement) CRETE
Chersiphron, or, as the name is written in Vitruvius and one passage of Pliny, Ctesiphon, an architect of Cnossus in Crete, in conjunction with his son Metagenes, built or commenced building the great temple of Artemis at Ephesus. The worship of Artemis was most probably established at Ephesus before the time of the Ionian colonization; and it would seem, that there was already at that distant period some temple to the goddess. (Paus. vii. 2. Β§ 4.) We are not told what had become of this temple, when, about the beginning of the 6th century B. C., the Ionian Greeks undertook the erection of a new temple, which was intended for the centre of their national worship, like the temple of Hera at Samos, which was built about the same time by the Dorian colonies. The preparation of the foundations was commenced about B. C. 600. To guard against earthquakes, a marsh was chosen for the site of the temple, and the ground was made firm by layers of charcoal rammed down, over which were laid fleeces of wool. This contrivance was suggested by Theodorus of Samos. The work proceeded very slowly. The erection of the columns did not take place till about 40 years later (B. C. 560). This date is fixed by the statement of Herodotus (i. 92), that most of the pillars were presented by Croesus. This therefore is the date of Chersiphron, since it is to him and to his son Metagenes that the ancient writers attribute the erection of the pillars and the architrave. Of course the plan could not be extended after the erection of the pillars; and therefore, when Strabo (xiv.) says, that the temple was enlarged by another architect, he probably refers to the building of the courts round it. It was finally completed by Demetrius and Paeonius of Ephesus, about 220 years after the foundations were laid ; but it was shortly afterwards burnt down by Herostratus on the same night in which Alexander the Great was born, B. C. 356. It was rebuilt with greater magnificence by the contributions of all the states of Asia Minor. It is said, that Alexander the Great offered to pay the cost of the restoration on the condition that his name should be inscribed on the temple, but that the Ephesians evaded the offer by replying, that it was not right for a god to make offerings to gods. The architect of the new temple was Deinocrates. The edifice has now entirely disappeared, except some remnants of its foundations. Though Pliny (like others of the ancient writers) has evidently confounded the two buildings, yet his description is valuable, since the restored temple was probably built on the same foundations and after the same general plan as the old one. We have also descriptions of it by Vitruvius, who took his statements from a work on the temple, which was said to have been written by the architects themselves, Chersiphron and Metagenes (vii. Praef.12). There are also medals on which the elevation of the chief portico is represented. The temple was Octastyle, Dipteral, Diastyle, and Hypaethral. It was raised on a basement of 10 steps. Its dimensions were 425 X 220 feet. The columns were 127 in number, 60 feet high, and made of white marble, a quarry of which was discovered at a distance of only eight miles from the temple, by a shepherd named Pixodarus. Thirty-six of the columns were sculptured (perhaps Caryatides within the cella), one of them by the great sculptor Scopas (Plin. xxxvi. 14. s. 21: but many critics think the reading doubtful). They were of the Ionic order of architecture, which was now first invented (Plin. xxxvi. 23. s. 56, and especially Vitruv. iv. 1.7, 8). Of the blocks of marble which composed the architrave some were as much as 30 feet long. In order to convey these and the columns to their places, Chersiphron and Metagenes invented some ingenious mechanical contrivances (Vitruv. x. 6, 7, or x. 2.11, 12, ed. Schneider; Plin. xxxvi. 14. s. 21). The temple was reckoned one of the seven wonders of the world, and is celebrated in several epigrams in the Greek Anthology, especially in two by Antipater of Sidon.
  From this account it is manifest that Chersiphron and Metagenes were among the most distinguished of ancient architects, both as artists and mechanicians.
(Plin. H. N. vii. 25. s. 38, xvi. 37. s. 79, xxxvi. 14. s. 21; Vitruv. iii. 2.7, vii. Praef.16; Strab. xiv.; Liv. i. 45; Diog. Laert. ii. 9; Philo Byzant. de VII Orb. Mirac.)

This text is from: A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (1890) (eds. William Smith, LLD, William Wayte, G. E. Marindin). Cited Nov 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Metagenes of Cnosus, 6th cent. BC

Son of Chersiphron of Cnosus


Nikos Koundouros

, , 1926
  Born in Aghios Nikolas (Crete) in 1926. He studied painting and sculpture at the School of Fine Arts in Athens (1948) but turned to the cinema with Magic City in 1954, where neo-realism is combined with an eye for imagery. In 1954 he made TV short films The Tragedy of our Islands and Thessaly and in 1956 The Ogre of Athens, a composite and pioneering work which established Koundouros as a genuine representative of the new age of cinema. His next film; were The Outlaws (1958),The River (1960), Young Aphrodites (1963) which won the Silver Bear for Best Director in Berlin and The Face of Medusa (1966) which was remade as Vortex (1971). In 1974 he made a political documentary about the period of the dictatorship entitled The Songs of Fire. This was followed by 1922 (1978), Bordello (1985) and Byron, Ballad for a Daemon (1992).

  Born in Aghios Nikolas (Crete) in 1926, he studied painting and sculpture at the School of Fine Arts in Athens (1948). His career in theatre began on the island of Macronissos where he did his military service because of anti-government sentiments. He turned to cinema with MAGIC CITY, a film where neo-realism combined with an eye for imagery. THE OGRE OF ATHENS, a composite and pioneering work which he made in 1956, established Koundouros as a genuine representative of the new age of cinema. In the years of the dictatorship Koundouros lived in Paris, Rome and London and on his return to Greece, following the fall of the military junta, he served as consultant on cinema to the Minister of Culture and president of the Greek Film Directors Guild. Some of Nikos Koundouros’ films, decidedly avant-garde for their time and for Greece, influenced many directors of the New Greek Cinema. His films have earned him international recognition and acclaim and a place as one of the foremost directors in Greek cinema.


Kotzias Georgios

, , 1918 - 1977

Andromachus the Elder, 1st cent. AD

Andromachus (Andromachos). A physician of Crete in the age of Nero. He was physician to the emperor, and inventor of the famous medicine, called after him, theriaca Andromachi. It was intended at first as an antidote against poisons, but became afterwards a kind of panacea. This medicine enjoyed so high a reputation among the Romans that the emperor Antoninus, at a later period, took some of it every day, and had it prepared every year in his palace. It consisted of sixty-one ingredients, the principal of which were squills, opium, pepper, and dried vipers.

Andromachus (Andromachos). Commonly called "the Elder", to distinguish him from his son of the same name, was born in Crete, and was physician to Nero, A. D. 54--68. He is principally celebrated for having been the first person on whom the title of " Archiater" is known to have been conferred (Dict. of Ant. s. v. Archiater), and also for having been the inventor of a very famous compound medicine and antidote, which was called after his name " Theriaca Andromachi," which long enjoyed a great reputation, and which retains its place in some foreign Pharmacopoeias to the present day. (Dict. of Ant. s. v. Theriaca). Andromachus has left us the directions for making this strange mixture in a Greek elegiac poem, consisting of one hundred and seventy-four lines, and dedicated to Nero. Galen has inserted it entire in two of his works, and says, that Andromachus chose this form for his receipt as being more easily remembered than prose, and less likely to be altered. The poem has been published in a separate form by Franc. Tidicaeus, Tiguri, 1607, with two Latin translations, one in prose and the other in verse. Some persons suppose him to be the author of a work on pharmacy, but this is generally attributed to his son, Andromachus the Younger.

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Famous families





Fighters of the 1821 revolution

Kritovoulidis Kallinikos

, , 1792 - 1868

Kourmoulis Dimitrios

, , 1765 - 1824

Kourmoulis Michalis

, , 1765 - 1824

Korakas Michalis

POBIA (Small town) MIRES
, , 1797 - 1882


Katechakis Georgios

, , 1881 - 1938


Cihumnus, Georgius

HERAKLION (Ancient city) CRETE
Cihumnus, Georgius, a native of Candace or Chandace, in the island of Crete, lived most probably during the later period of the Greek empire. He wrote a history in verse, beginning with the creation of the world and going down to the reign of David and Solomon, kings of Judaea, which is extant in MS. in the imperial library at Vienna, and was formerly in the library of John Suzzo (Susius) at Constantinople.

Historic figures


, , 360 - 300
Admiral of Alexander the Great, famous for his exploration of the Indian Ocean and the Persian Gulf.
  Nearchus was born on Crete, but his father Androtimus moved to Amphipolis in Macedonia; here, Nearchus grew up. Androtimus must have been an important man, because his son was educated together with the crown prince, Alexander, the son of king Philip of Macedonia (356-336). When the king sent his son briefly into exile in 337, Nearchus shared the banishment and returned with his friend.
  When Alexander, whose reign had started in 336, invaded Asia in May 334, Nearchus was with him, and at the beginning of the next year, he was appointed satrap of Lycia and Pamphylia. This meant that Nearchus was responsible for the ports in southern Turkey; as long he held them, the Persian navy was forced to sail from Cyprus to the Aegean Sea through open waters, which was very risky. He did his job well: during 333, the Persian commanders Memnon of Rhodes and Pharnabazus were active in the Aegean waters, but they received no reinforcements.
  The naval war ended when Alexander conquered Phoenicia, the Persian naval base. He went on to Egypt and Babylonia, took the Persian capitals Susa, Persepolis, Pasargadae and Ecbatana, pursued the defeated Persian king Darius III Codomannus and went on to the northeastern provinces of the former Achaemenid empire, Bactria and Sogdiana.
  It was at this stage of the war, in the first months of 329, that he recalled Nearchus, who was to come to the east and bring Greek mercenaries. The former satrap of Lycia and Pamphylia shared this command with Asander, who had been satrap of Lydia. It is likely that Nearchus was surprised to see how his youth friend had changed: he was now calling himself Son of Zeus and King of Asia, and wore a diadem and the Persian royal tunic.
  We do not know what Nearchus did during the Sogdian campaign; during the invasion of India (January 326), however, he was one of the two commanders of the Shield bearers, a heavy infantry unit. He was almost immediately replaced by Seleucus, who commanded these men during the battle on the Hydaspes (May).
  Although they were victorious, the Macedonian and Greek soldiers refused to go any further and Alexander decided to return to Babylonia. He ordered the construction of a large fleet, which was to be commanded by Nearchus. The voyage down the Indus lasted from November 326 to July 325. It was not an easy cruise: several times, the Macedonians had to fight a way along resisting native towns. Finally, the reached Patala (Old Indian for 'camp for ships'), modern Bahmanabad, 75 kilometers north-east of Hyderabad.
  Not all soldiers continued to the Ocean. The army was too big to remain united. In June, general Craterus had already left the main force and had gone to Carmania with a third of the soldiers. In August, Alexander and half of what remained of the army set out for a long and difficult march through the Gedrosian desert. Nearchus was to ship the remaining half of the soldiers, c.33,000 men, to Carmania and Babylonia. He was not the first westerner to make the expedition: one Scylax of Caryanda had made the same voyage in the late sixth century BCE.
  Later, Nearchus wrote a book about the naval expedition, which was also to be a voyage of discovery. The Indike is now lost, but its contents are well-known from several sources, especially the Indike by Arrian. It seems to have consisted of two parts: the first half contained a description of India's borders, size, rivers, population, castes, animals -especially elephants-, armies and customs; the second half described Nearchus' voyage home.
  On September 15, Nearchus' set out from Patala, having waited for the Southwest monsoon to subside. It is not easy to reconstruct the voyage in detail, because it was impossible for the ancients to measure distances at sea; all Nearchus' indications of distance are, therefore, merely guesswork and can hardly be relied upon to reconstruct his expedition. Nonetheless, the information in the Indike is sufficient to have a general idea of the route and the troubles encountered.
  Almost immediately after leaving Patala, it was clear that the Macedonian fleet had set out too soon. (Perhaps the native population had forced Nearchus to leave earlier than he wanted to.) The ships encountered adversary winds and it took them almost a week to reach Ocean. Then, they headed for the North, through the laguna between the mouths of the rivers Indus and Hab. This was easier, but when they turned to the East, the renewed Southwest monsoon proved too strong to continue. The Macedonians had to wait and fortified their camp with a wall of stone, fearing enemy attacks. They soon discovered that their supplies were running out. They were forced to hunt for mussels, oysters, and so-called razor-fish and had to drink briny water.
  They had to remain there for twenty-four days, but were able to continue and after several days reached a place called Morontobara or Woman's Harbor (modern Karachi) and reached the mouth of the Hab. They continued along the coast thought the Sonmiani Bay. One night, they camped on the battlefield where Leonnatus, one of Alexander's generals, had defeated the native population, the Oreitans ('Mountain people'). He had left a large food deposit for Nearchus' men: enough for ten days.
  With the wind behind them and sufficient supplies, they were able to speed up their journey and reached the Hingol river. At this point, the Indike describes how a native village was destroyed and its inhabitants were killed. It is remarkable that the author (Arrian/Nearchus) makes no attempt to justify the attack.
  Continuing their voyage, Nearchus and his men arrived in the country of the Fish eaters. (It was a common practice among the Greeks to describe people not by their own name, but by one of their most remarkable customs.) These were very poor people living on the sandy strip of land between the Ocean and the Gedrosian desert, and the Macedonians had big difficulties finding supplies. Fortunately, they found an excellent harbor, called Bagisara (modern Ormara).
  The next stage of the voyage is well-understood: they put in at Colta (Ras Sakani), Calima (Kalat) and an island called Carnine (Astola), where, according to Nearchus, even the mutton had a fishy taste. They continued and passed Cysa (near Pasni) and Mosarna (near Ras Shahid). Here, a Gedrosian pilot joined them, who led them in two days to modern Gwadar, where they were delighted to see date-palms and gardens. Three days later, Nearchus' men surprised Cyisa, a town near modern Ra's Beris and took away their supplies. Next, they anchored near a promontory dedicated to the Sun, called Bageia ('dwelling of the gods') by the natives; it is probably identical to Ra's Kuh Lab.
  From now on, the Macedonians were really hungry, and they must have been happy to see that they could cover large distances. The places that Nearchus mentions in his account of the voyage (Talmena, Canasis, Canate, Taa, Dagaseira - can not be identified, although it is plausible that the last mentioned town is modern Jask. Now Nearchus had reached Carmania and was approaching the Straits of Hormuz. In the Indike, he notes that the country produced corn, vines and many cultivated trees, except the olive tree that the Greeks loved so much. The sailors saw the Oman peninsula, and Nearchus describes how the helmsman of the flagship, Onesicritus, said that they should go over there, and that Nearchus replied that he did not want to expose the fleet to new dangers.
  Nearchus describes Onesicritus as a fool and also mentions that Onesicritus had (later) falsely claimed to have been the fleet-commander. Most scholars accept Nearchus words, but there may be more to it than meets they eyes. Alexander had started to give important commands to two people at the same time, who had to act as colleagues (e.g., Nearchus had shared the command of Alexander's Greek mercenaries with Asander and had been in charge of the Shield bearers with one Antiochus). It is possible that Onesicritus was not just the helmsman of the flagship, but Nearchus' equal, and it is also possible that Alexander had ordered his navy to conquer the Oman peninsula, which was a Persian satrapy, Maka. Perhaps we should not believe Nearchus' own words.
  Two days later, the Macedonian navy reached Harmozeia (modern Minab), one of the largest ports in the Persian Gulf. Here they had a rendez-vous with Alexander, who had marched through the Gedrosian desert. Nearchus had believed Alexander was lost and Alexander had believed that he had lost his navy, so it was a happy encounter.
  It was January 324 when the Macedonian fleet continued its voyage along the coasts of Carmania and Persis. But now, they were traveling along familiar shores and made progress. Among the identifiable places they visited are the island Qeshm, Cape Ra's-e Bostaneh, the island Queys, Band-e Nakhilu, the island Lazeh (where they watched pearl divers), the Bandar-e Shiu promontory, Nay Band, Kangan, the river Mand, Busher, the river Dasht-e Palang, Jazireh-ye Shif and the river Hendiyan, which is the border of Persis and Susiana. Here, the ships could no longer continue along the coast because of the breakers. However, the finally reached the mouth of the Tigris safely.
  When Nearchus heard that Alexander was approaching from the east, he decided to wait for his king at Susa, the capital of Susiana. Here, Alexander celebrated the homecoming of his army and navy. Nearchus, Onesicritus and several others received a golden diadem as a reward for their deeds.
  It was Alexander's wish that his friends and then other Macedonians would marry native women; therefore, Nearchus married to a daughter of Alexander's Persian mistress Barsine. It is not known whether they had children, but it is remarkable that during the conflicts after Alexander's death, Nearchus backed Heracles, the son of Alexander and Barsine, and stayed with his wife. The other Macedonians usually divorced their Persian wives.
  In the last months of Alexander's life, Nearchus was usually with him, which may have something to do with the fact that Alexander was making plans for a naval expedition against the Arabs of modern Yemen. However, Alexander died on June 11, 323 (click here for a discussion of the date). This was the beginning of the era of Alexander's successors, the Diadochi.
  As already said, Nearchus backed the son of his wife, Heracles, but the boy and Barsine were probably killed by Polyperchon, one of the generals fighting for a share of Alexander's inheritance (309). Nearchus spend some time with another general, Antigonus, and educated his son Demetrius. When Demetrius had his first independent command in a war against Ptolemy, Nearchus assisted him. The two were defeated near Gaza (312).
  Nearchus' year of death is unknown.

Jona Lendering, ed.
This text is cited July 2003 from the Livius Ancient History Website URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks.


Lasthenes. A Cretan who took a prominent part in urging his countrymen to resist the attack of M. Antonius in B. C. 70. On this account, when the Cretans, after the defeat of Antonius, sent an embassy to Rome to excuse their past conduct, and sue for peace, one of the conditions imposed by the senate was the surrender of Lasthenes and Panares, as the authors of their offence. (Diod. Exe. Legat. xl.; Appian, Sic. 6; Dion Cass. Fragm. 177). These terms were rejected by the Cretans; and in the war that followed against Q. Metellus (B. C. 68) Lasthenes was one of the principal leaders. Together with Panares, he assembled an army of 24,000 men, with which they maintained the contest against the Roman army for near three years: the excellence of the Cretans as archers, and their great personal activity, giving them many advantages in desultory warfare. At length, however, Lasthenes was defeated by Metellus near Cydonia, and fled for refuge to Cnossus, where, finding himself closely pressed by the Roman general, he is said to have set fire to his own house, and consumed it with all his valuables. After this he made his escape from the city, and took refuge in Lyttus, but was ultimately compelled to surrender, stipulating only that his life should be spared. Metellus intended to retain both Lasthenes and Panares as prisoners, to adorn his triumph, but was compelled to give them up by Pompey, under whose protection the Cretans had placed themselves. (Diod. l. c. ; Appian, Sic. 6. 1, 2; Phlegon, ap. Phot.; Dion Cass. xxxvi. 2; Vell. Pat ii. 34.)

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2006 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Chatzidakis Ioannis

, , 1844 - 1921


Philonides of Chersonesus, 4th cent. BC

Engineer, Land surveyor, chartographer. Son of Zoilos. Engineer of Alexander΄s Army accompanied him to his campaigh to Asia. He is mentioned by Diogenis Laertios as a "surveyor of the lands conquered by Alexander". Work He measured daily, as a "day - measeurer and stepper", the put - back itineraries by the army and prepared a "route diagram" showing the marching way and the surroundings.
  On a scripture found at Olympia is written : "Philonides, son of Zoilos,Chersonesian Cretan, King Alexander΄s day - measurer and stepper of Asia to Olympian Zeus dedicated".

Ancient writers tell the stories of athletes who worked at other jobs and did not spend all their time in training. For example, one of Alexander the Great's couriers, Philonides, who was from Chersonesus in Crete, once won the pentathlon, which included discus, javelin, long jump, and wrestling competitions as well as running. However, just as in the modern Olympics, an ancient athlete needed mental dedication, top conditioning, and outstanding athletic ability in order to make the cut.

Men in the armed forces

Bolis the Cretan (2nd century BC)



There were times, indeed, when the barbarians caused a great deal of trouble even to the troops who had climbed to a higher position, when they were coming down again; for their men were so agile that even if they took to flight from close at hand, they could escape; for they had nothing to carry except bows and slings. As bowmen they were most excellent; they had bows nearly three cubits long and their arrows were more than two cubits, and when they shot, they would draw their strings by pressing with the left foot against the lower end of the bow; and their arrows would go straight through shields and breastplates.Whenever they got hold of them, the Greeks would use these arrows as javelins, fitting them with thongs. In these regions the Cretans made themselves exceedingly useful. They were commanded by a Cretan named Stratocles.

Zelys of Gortyna

GORTYS (Ancient city) HERAKLIO
The mercenaries from Greece amounting to five thousand were led by Hippolochus of Thessaly. Antiochus had also fifteen hundred Cretans who came with Eurylochus, and a thousand Neo-Cretans commanded by Zelys of Gortyna; with whom were five hundred javelin-men of Lydia


Afraid of the Gortynians, because they had narrowly escaped losing their city in the previous year by an attack led by Nothocrates, the Cydonians sent envoys to Eumenes demanding his assistance in virtue of their alliance with him. The king selected Leon and some soldiers, and sent them in haste to Crete; and on their arrival the Cydonians delivered the keys of their city to Leon, and put the town entirely in his hands. . . .


Nikos Xylouris

, , 7/7/1936 - 8/2/1980


Amiton, of Eleutherae in Crete, is said to have been the first person who sung to the lyre amatory poems. His descendants were called Amitores (Amitores) (Athen. xiv.). There seems some corruption in the text of Athenaeus, as the two names Amiton and Amitores do not correspond. Instead of the former we ought perhaps to read Ametor.

Borboudakis Minas

  Minas Borboudakis was born οn the l9th April 1974 in Heraklio, Crete. At the age of four he took his first music lessons at the "Αροllο" School of Music. Ιn 1985 he continued his piano studies and his advanced theory studies in Mr. G. Kaloutsis class. After his graduate exams in piano (excellent unanimously - 1st class award) and in Advanced Harmony (excellent unanimously) in July 1992, he started taking lessons of composing music with Mr. W. Hiller and piano lessons with Mr. O. Dressler at the Special Academy of Munich "Richard - Stauss Konservatorium". Ιn June 1997 he took his diploma exams in piano, gaining the highest marking of the academic year. From September of the same year he followed postgraduate studies in the class of Mrs. U. Mitrenga. In July 1998 he graduated from the composing class of W. Hiller.
  He has performed in numerous concerts not only as α pianist but also as α composer in Germany, Austria, Serbia, Russia, France, Japan and Greece. Οn the programme of the 4th Biennale of Music his "Cretan Dance" was included for brass and percussion orchestra, which was performed in the Philarmonie of Munich. Also, after the order of Abonnentenorchester der Munchener Philharmoniker the "Three Spanish Dances" for great orchestra and dancers was presented in the above hall in July 1995. During the 46th Festival of young people in Bayreuth, his stage cantata "Samson and Dalida" was performed and recorded for the first time (CD Feidman in Bayreuth "Lilith") with soloist the world famous clarinist Giora Feidman.
  Ηis works have been recorded by the bayenscer Rundfunk (Prayer for peace, Cretan Dance, Echoes ΙΙ, and many others), by the ERT (Greek Broadcasting Television) (suite for flute, cello and piano), by the Serbian Broadcasting and Television Company (Thesis - Antithesis for string orchestra) and have been presented by many different music groups, among whom are The Belgrad Sinfonietta., RSK Kammeochester, Forum 21 and others.
  Ιn the summer 1994, he took part in the seminar οf modern chamber music with George Crumb in Prague. Ιn November of the same year he took part in a piano seminar with the Russian pianist Α. Nasedkin and in the summer 1995 he also took part as α composer in the 45th festival of young people in Bayreuth. In October 1997 he participated in Meisterklasskurs of the Russian pianist R. Kehre. In July 1998 he took part in a composition seminar with L. Berio. In the summer 1995 the "Richard - Strauss Stipendium" scholarship of the city Munich was awarded to him.
Works (Selection):
- Silence in the stone garden for soprano, flute, percussion 4.10.95 Gasteig
- Echoes of Ancient Times VI for ensemble 5.96 Kaiserslautern
- Aulodia for recorders 18.6.96 Karajan Zentrum Wien
- Erotikon for large orchestra 7.12.96 Herkulessaal Munchen
- Echoes III for alto flute and piano 4.9.97 Sapporo Japan
- Chorochronos I for 2 percussionists and 2 pianos 19.1.98 Gasteig
- Krousis for 2 orchestras 2.10.99 Philharmonie Gasteig

This text is cited Mar 2003 from the Friends of Music Society "Lilian Voudouri" URL below, which contains image.

Koumentakis Giorgos

  Giorgos Koumendakis was born in Rethymnon (Crete) in 1959. At the age of 15 he started composing.
  He has composed more than 60 pieces, for orchestra, chamber music, chamber orchestra, operas, oratorios and for ancient tragedies and his music has been performed in more than 300 concerts internationally.
He has participated in many international festivals:
Bienale of Venice 1985 (Teatro la Fenice)
Epidaurus Festival 1981, 1984, 1989, 1996 (Ancient Theatre of Epidaurus)
Athens Festival 1988, 1989
European Year of Music 1985 (Asolo, Bolzano, Luxembourg) Commission by the European Community Youth Orchestra. His selection was made by G. Ligeti
World Music Days Festival: 1987 Germany, 1988 Hong Kong, 1990 Oslo
Festival de la Musique Grecque (Centre Georges Pompidou-Paris 1981)
Midem-International Festival in Cannes 1987
Frankfurt Feste 1987
IV Festival di Musica Contemporanea, Naples 1987
Semaines Musicales Internationales d' Orleans 1987
Week of Greek Music in London (Purcell Room) 1989
Middelburg Festival Holland 1990
Lecce Festival 1992
"Tage fur Neue Musik" Festival Zurich 1992
"Presences 92", Radio France, Paris 1992
Conferenza Musicale Mediterranea, Palermo, 1992, 1997
New Musica 4, London, 1994
Argos Festival: 1995, 1996, 1997
Thessaloniki European Cultural Capital, 1997
Greece in Britain, 1998 (London - Purcell Room, Oxford - Sheldonian Theater)
Kalamata International Dance Festival, 1998
Aix en Provence Festival, 1998, Commissioned by the French Ministry of Culture (Theatre de l' Archeveche)
  His works have been performed - among others - by Quattor Leonardo, ENSEMBLE INTERCONTEMPORAIN, European Community Youth Orchestra, Oslo Sinfonietta, Oslo Philharmonic Chamber Choir, Divertimento Ensemble, Xenakis Ensemble, Hong Kong Ensemble, Arraymusik Ensemble, New Greek Quattor, La Camerata (Athens Megaron) Friends of Music Orchestra, Actis, Alea III, Accademia Musicale Siciliana, Orchestre des Jeunes de la Mediterranee, Composer's Ensemble, The City of Oxford Orchestra and have been conducted among others, by Arturo Tamayo, Gunther Schuller, Diego Masson, James Judd, Mathias Bamert, Ingo Metzmacher, Sandro Gorli, Olivier Cuendet, Christian Eggen, Stefan Skold, Henry Kucharzyk, Miltos Logiades, Gaetano Colajanni, Nikos Tsouchlos.
In 1979 he represented Greece at the Unesco International Forum for Composers (Paris).
  He has collaborated on six occasions with the Dance Company "OMADA EDAFOUS".
  Since 1994 he works with "Studio 19", trying to adapt new technologies in music production.
  He has been given 4 commissions from the Athens Megaron.
  In 1998 was performed at the Athens Megaron ("Friends of Music" Hall) his work "Missa Harmoniae Verbi" for 4 soloists, choir, string quartet and orchestra, conducted by Alex. Myrat.
  His work "Petit Concerto pour Piano et 7 Instruments" will be performed, as compulsory piece, at the Competition "Dimitris Mitropoulos" 1998, for young conductors.
  Giorgos Koumendakis has been awarded the "Prix de Rome" and he was a composer "pensionaire" for 1993 in Villa Medicis, Rome.
  In 1994 he was awarded the "Nikos Kazantzakis Price".
  5 CD with his works have been released. A new CD is under release with Aris Christofellis and the "Chromaton Orchestra".
  Recently he has been appointed "Composer in Residence" for the Hellenic Concert Series in London and he will compose 3 works, over the next two years, which were commissioned for Clio Gould and the "BT Scottish Ensemble", with generous support from the "Michael Marks Charitable Trust".

This text is cited Mar 2003 from the Friends of Music Society "Lilian Voudouri" URL below, which contains image.


Kondylakis Ioannis

, , 1862 - 1920

Kazantzaki Galatia

, , 1881 - 1962


Domenikos Theotokopoulos, El Greco

Domenico Theotocopuli (El Greco). One of the most remarkable Spanish artists, b. in Crete, between 1545 and 1550; d. at Toledo, 7 April, 1614. On 15 Nov., 1570, the miniature-painter Giulio Clovio wrote to Cardinal N. Farnese, recommending El Greco to his patron, describing him as a Cretan, who was then in Rome and had been a pupil of Titian. El Greco, however, derived very little influence from his master, for his works, beyond a certain influence of Bassano, Baroccio, Veronese, or Tintoretto, are individual and distinct. El Greco came to Spain in 1577. He signed his name in Greek characters, using the Latin form of his Christian name, and repeatedly declaring himself as a native of Crete. He appeared before the tribunal of the Inquisition at Toledo in 1582, as interpreter for one of his compatriots who was accused of being a Moor; he then definitely announced that he had settled in Toledo. Nothing is known of his parentage or early history, nor why he went to Spain; but in time he became typically Spanish, and his paintings exhibit all the characteristics of the people amongst whom he resided. From very early days he struck out a definite line for himself, glorying in cold tones with blue, in the use of grey and many varied tones of white, and in impressionistic work which foreshadowed ideas in art that were introduced one hundred and fifty years later. His first authenticated portrait is that of his patron and fellow-countryman, Clovio, now at Naples; his last, that of a cardinal, in the National Gallery. His first important commission in Spain was to paint the reredos of the Church of Santo Domingo of Diego at Toledo. He may have been drawn to Spain in connexion with the work in the Escorial, but he made Toledo his home. The house where he lived is now a museum of his works, saved to Spain by one of her nobles.
  His earliest important work is "El Espolio", which adorns the high altar in Toledo, but by far his greatest painting is the famous "Burial of the Count of Orgaz" in the Church of Santo Tome. The line of portraits in the rear of the burial scene represents with infinite skill almost every phase of the Spanish character, while one or two of the faces in the immediate background have seldom, if ever, been equalled in beauty. It is one of the masterpieces of the world. The influence of El Greco in the world of art was for a long time lost sight of, but it was very real, and very far-reaching. Velasquez owed much to him, and, in modern days, Sargent attributes his skill as an arist to a profound study of El Greco's works. El Greco's separate portraits are marvels of discernment; few men have exhibited the complexities of mental emotion with equal success. The largest collection of his works outside of Spain belongs to the King of Rumania, some of the paintings being at Sinaia, others in Bukarest. In the National Gallery of London, in the collections of Sir John Sterling-Maxwell, the Countess of Yarborough, and Sir Frederick Cook, in the galleries of Dresden, Parma, and Naples, and in the possession of several eminent French collectors are fine examples of his work. But to study El Greco's work to perfection one must visit Toledo, Illescas, Madrid, the Escorial, and many of the private collections of Spain, and his extraordinary work will be found worthy of the closest study. He was a man of eccentric habits and ideas, of tremendous determination, extraordinary reticence, and extreme devoutness. He was a constant attendant at the sacraments, made complete arrangements for his funeral before he died, and was buried in the Church of Santo Tome.
Transcribed by WGKofron
With thanks to Fr. John Hilkert, Akron, Ohio

This text is cited Nov 2003 from The Catholic Encyclopedia, New Advent online edition URL below.

Damaskinos Michalis

, , 1530 - 1592
Michael Damaskinos became famous at his time (referred 1570-1591). He developed the ability to work in different styles and to create excellent icons in the whole array, from impeccable byzantine to downright italian. Besides, he worked in Venice for the paintings of the church of St. George of the Greeks. He showed a new way to a blending of the traditional orthodox with the contemporary western art, and had many imitators.

Nikos Koundouros

Ioannis Pagomenos

  Ioannis Pagomenos was the most hard-working, diverse, and pleasant of the known Cretan painters and he is buried under the thirteen century Byzantine church of Agios Nikolaos, in the middle of the village of Maza. For more than 30 years, between 1314 and 1347 he painted churches by himself. These churches include Agios Georgios in Komitades, Sfakia (1314), Agios Nikolaos in Moni, Selino (1315), the Panagia in Alikambos, Apokoronas (1316), Agios Georgios, Anidri, Selino (1323), Agios Nikolaos, Maza, Apokoronas (1326), Michael Archangelos, Kavalariana near Kandanos, Selino (1328), the Panagia of Beilitika near Kakodiki, Selino (1332) and the Panagia, Skafidia near Prodromi, Selino (1347).

This extract is cited Apr 2003 from the Crete TOURnet URL below, which contains image.


Diogenes Apolloniates, (Diogenes ho Apolloniates), an eminent natural philosopher, who lived in the fifth century B. C. He was a native of Apollonia in Crete, his father's name was Apollothemis, and he was a pupil of Anaximenes. Nothing is known of the events of his life, except that he was once at Athens, and there got into trouble from some unknown cause, which is conjectured to have been the supposition that his philosophical opinions were dangerous to the religion of the state. (Diog. Laert. ix.57.) He wrote a work in the Ionic dialect, entitled Peri Phuseos, " On Nature," which consisted of at least two hooks, and in which he appears to have treated of physical science in the largest sense of the words. Of this work only a few short fragments remain, preserved by Aristotle, Diogenes Laertius, and Simplicius. The longest of these is that which is inserted by Aristotle in the third book of his History of Animals, and which contains an interesting description of the origin and distribution of the veins. The following is the account of his philosophical opinions given by Diogenes Lartius :--" He maintained that air was the primal element of all things; that there was an infinite number of worlds, and an infinite void; that air, densified and rarified, produced the different members of the universe; that nothing was produced from nothing, or was reduced to nothing; that the earth was round, supported in the middle, and had received its shape from the whirling round of the warm vapours, and its concretion and hardening from cold." The last paragraph, which is extremely obscure in the original, has been translated according to Panzerbeiter's explanation, not as being entirely satisfactory, but as being the best that has hitherto been proposed. Diogenes also imputed to air an intellectual energy, though without recognizing any distinction between mind and matter. The fragments of Diogenes have been collected and published, with those of Anaxagoras, by Schorn, Bonn, 1829, 8vo; and alone by Panzerbeiter, Lips. 1830, 8vo, with a copious dissertation on his philosophy.

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Aenesidemus, 1st c. B.C.

KNOSSOS (Minoan settlement) CRETE
Aenesidemus (Ainesidemos), a celebrated sceptic, born at Cnossus, in Crete, according to Diogenes Laertius (ix. 116), but at Aegae, according to Photius (Cod. 212), probably lived a little later than Cicero. He was a pupil of Heracleides and received from him the chair of philosophy, which had been handed down for above three hundred years from Pyrrhon, the founder of the sect. For a full account of the sceptical system see Pyrrhon. As Aenesidemus differed on many points from the ordinary sceptic, it will be convenient before proceeding to his particular opinions, to give a short account of the system itself.
  The sceptic began and ended in universal doubt. He was equally removed from the academic who denied, as from the dogmatic philosopher who affirmed; indeed, he attempted to confound both in one, and refute them by the same arguments (Sext. Emp. i. 1). Truth, he said, was not to be desired for its own sake, but for the sake of a certain repose of mind (ataraxia) which followed on it, an end which the septic best attained in another way, by suspending his judgment (epoche), and allowing himself literally to rest in doubt (i. 4). With this view he must travel over the whole range of moral, metaphysical, and physical science. His method is the comparison of opposites, and his sole aim to prove that nothing call be proved, or what he termed, the isostheneia, of things. In common life he may act upon Phainomena with the rest of men : nature, law, and custom are allowed to have their influence; only when impelled to any vehemlent effort we are to remember that, here too, there is much to be said on both sides, and are not to lose our peace of mind by grasping at a shadow.
  The famous deka tropoi of the sceptics were a number of heads of argument intended to overthrow truth in whatever form it might appear. The opposite appearances of the moral and natural world (Sext. Emp. i. 14), the fallibility of intellect and sense, and the illusions produced upon them by intervals of time and space and by very change of position, were the first arguments by which they assailed the reality of things. We cannot explain what man is, we cannot explain what the senses are: still less do we know the way in which they are acted upon by the mind (ii. 4-7): beginning with ouden horizo, we must end with ouden mallon We are not certain whether material objects are anything but ideas in the mind: at any rate the different qualities which we perceive in them may be wholly dependent on the percipient being; or, supposing them to contain quality as well as substance, it may be one quality varying with the perceptive power of the different senses (ii. 14). Having thus confounded the world without and the world within, it was a natural transition for the sceptic to confound physical and metaphysical argluments. The reasonings of natural philosophy were overthrown by metaphysical subtleties, and metaphysics made to look absurd by illustrations only applicable to material things. The acknowledged imperfection of language was also pressed into the service; words, they said, were ever varying in their signification, so that the ideas of which they were the signs must be alike variable. The leading idea of the whole system was, that all truth involved either a vicious circle or a petitio principii, for, even in the simplest truths, something must be assumed to make the reasoning applicable. The truth of the senses was known to us from the intellect, but the intellect operated through the senses, so that our knowledge of the nature of either depends upon the other. There was, however, a deeper side to this philosophy. Everything we know, confessedly, runs up into something we do not know: of the true nature of cause and effect we are ignorant, and hence to the favourite method, apo tou eis apeiron ekballein, or arguing backward fiom cause to cause, the very imperfection of human faculties prevents our giving an answer. We must know what we believe; and how can we be sure of secondary causes, if the first cause be wholly beyond us? To judge, however, from the sketch of Sextus Empiricus (Pyrrh. Hyp.), it was not this side of their system which the sceptics chiefly urged: for the most part, it must be confessed, that they contented themselves with dialectic subtleties, which were at once too absurd for refutation, and impossible to refute.
  The causes of scepticism are more fully given under the article Pyrrhon. One of the most remarkable of its features was its connexion with the later philosophy of the Ionian school. From the failure of their attempts to explain the phenomena of the visible world, the Ionian philosophers were insensibly led on to deny the order and harmony of creation: they saw nothing but a perpetual and ever-changing chaos, acted upon, or rather self-acting, by an inherent power of motion, of which the nature was only known by its effects. This was the doctrine of Heracleitus, that "the world was a fire ever kindling and going out, which made all things and was all things." It was this link of connexion between the sceptical and Ionian schools which Aenesidemus attempted to restore. The doctrine of Heracleitus, although it spoke of a subtle fire, really meant nothing more than a principle of change; and although it might seem absurd to a strict sceptic like Sextus Empiricus to affirm even a principle of change, it involved no real inconsistency with the sceptical system. We are left to conjecture as to the way in which Aenesidemus arrived at his conclusions : the following account of them seems probable. It will be seen, from what has been said, that the sceptical system had destroyed everything but sensation. But sensation is the effect of change, the principle of motion working internally. It was very natural then that the sceptic, proceeding from the only arche, which remained to him, should suggest an explanation of the outward world, derived from that of which alone he was certain, his own internal sensations. The mere suggestion of a probable cause might seem inconsistent with the distinction which the sceptics drew between their own absolute uncertainty and the probability spoken of by the Academics indeed, it was inconsistent with their metaphysical paradoxes to draw conclusions at all : if so, we must be content to allow that Aenesidemus (as Sextus Empiricus implies) got a little beyond the dark region of scepticism into the light of probability.
  Other scattered opinions of Aenesidemus have been preserved to us, some of which seem to lead to the same conclusion. Time, he said, was to on and to proton soma (Pyr. Hyp. iii. 17), probably in allusion to the doctrine of the Stoics, that all really existing substances were somata: in other words, he meant to say that time was a really existing thing, and not merely a condition of thought. This was connected with the principle of change, which was inseparable from a notion of time : if the one had a real existence (and upon its existence the whole system depended), the other must likewise have a real existence. In another place, adapting his language to that of Heracleitus, he said that "time was air" (Sext. Emp. adv. Logicos, iv. 233), probably meaning to illustrate it by the imperceptible nature of air, in the same way that the motion of the world was said to work by a subtle and invisible tire. All things, according to his doctrine, were but Phainomena which were brought out and adapted to our perceptions by their mutual opposition: metaphorically they might be said to shine forth in the light of Heracieitus's fire. He did not, indeed, explain how this union of opposites made them sensible to the faculties of man : probably he would rather have supported his view by the impossibility of the mind conceiving of anything otherwise than in a state of motion, or, as he would have expressed it, in a state of mutual opposition. But Phainomena are of two kinds, ioia and koina (Sext. Emp. adv. Log. ii. 8), the perceptions of individuals, and those common to mankind. Here again Aenesidemus seems to lose sight of the sceptical system. which (in speculation at least) admitted no degrees of truth, doubt, or probability. The same remark applies to his distinction of kinesis into metabatike and metabletike, simple motion and change. He seems also to have opposed the perplexity which the sceptics endeavoured to bring about between matter and mind; for he asserted that thought was independent of the body, and "that the sentient power looked out through the crannies of the senses" (Adv. Log. i. 349). Lastly, his vigorous mind was above the paltry confusion of physical and metaphysical distinctions; for he declared, after Heracleitus, "that a part was the same with the whole and yet different from it". The grand peculiarity of his system was the attempt to unite scepticism with the earlier philosophy, to raise a positive foundation for it by accounting from the nature of things for the never-ceasing changes both in the material and spiritual world.
  Sextus Empiricus has preserved his argument against our knowledge of causes, as well as a table of eight methods by which all a priori reasoning may be confuted, as all arguments whatever may be by the deka tropoi. I. Either the cause given is unseen, and not proven by things seen, as if a person were to explain the motions of the planets by the music of the spheres. II. Or if the cause be seen, it cannot be shewn to exclude other hypotheses: we must not only prove the cause, but dispose of every other cause. III. A regular effect may be attributed to an irregular cause ; as if one were to explain the motions of the heavenly bodies by a sudden impulse. IV. Men argue from things seen to things unseen, assuming that they are governed by the same laws. V. Causes only mean opinions of causes, which are inconsistent with phenomena and with other opinions. VI. Equally probable causes are accepted or rejected as they agree with this or that preconceived notion. VII. These causes are at variance with phenomena as well as with abstract principles. VIII. Principles must be uncertain, because the facts from which they proceed are uncertain.
  It is to be regretted that nothing is known of the personal history of Aenesidemus. A list of his works and a sketch of their contents have been preserved by Photius (Cod. 212). He was the author of three books of Purrhoneiai Hupotuposeis, and is mentioned as a recent teacher of philosophy by Aristocles (Apud Euscb. Praeparat. Exang. xiv. 18). It is to Aenesidemus that Sextus Empiricus was indebted for a considerable part of his work.

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Sep 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks



Georgios Chortatzis



Chrysothemis. A Cretan, who first obtained the poetical prize at the Pythian games.


Hybreas. A Cretan lyric poet, the author of a drinking-song preserved in Athenaeus

Hybrias, (Hubrias) of Crete, a lyric poet, the author of a highly esteemed scholion which is preserved by Athenaens (xv. p. 695-6) and Eustathius (ad Odyss. p. 276, 47), and in the Greek Anthology. (Brunck, Anal. vol. i. p. 159; see Jacobs's notes, and Ilgen, Schol. s. Carm. Conviv. Graec. p. 102.)

Mavroidi - Papadaki Sophia

, , 1904 - 1977
She wrote books for children. She was also a critic and translator.

Thales or Thaletas

GORTYS (Ancient city) HERAKLIO
Thales or Thaletas, the celebrated musician and lyric poet. The two forms of the name are mere varieties of the same word: but Thales seems to be the more genuine ancient form; for it not only has the authority of Aristotle, Strabo, and Plutarch, but it is also used by Pausanias (i. 14. Β§ 4) in quoting the verses composed in honour of the musician by his contemporary Polymnestns. Nevertheless, it is more convenient to follow the prevailing custom among modern writers, and call him Thaletas.
  The position of Thaletas is one of the most interesting, and at the same time most difficult points, in that most interesting and difficult subject, the early history of Greek music and lyric poetry. The most certain fact known of him is, fortunately, that which is also the most important; namely, that he introduced from Crete into Sparta certain principles or elements of music and rhythm, which did not exist in Terpander's system, and thereby founded the second of the musical schools which flourished at Sparta (Plut. de Mus. 9, p. 1135, b. ).
  He was a native of Crete, and, according to the best writers, of the city of Gortyna. (Polymnestus, ap. Paus. l. c. ; Plut. de Mus. l. c.) Suidas has preserved other traditions, which assigned him to Cnossus or to Elyrus (Suid. s. v., for the articles Thaletas Kres and Thaletas Knossios refer without doubt to the same individual, and in the former article the words e Illurios ought to be Elurios : comp. Meursius, Cret. i. 9; KΌster, ad loc. ; MΌller, Hist. Lit. of Greece, vol. i. p. 159).
  In compliance, according to tradition, with an invitation which the Spartans sent to him in obedience to an oracle, he removed to Sparta, where, by the sacred character of his paeans, and the humanizing influence of his music, he appeased the wrath of Apollo, who had visited the city with a plague, and composed the factions of the citizens, who were at enmity with each other (Paus. l. c. ; Plut. Lycurg. 4 ; Ephorus, ap. Strab. x. pp. 480, 482; Sext. Empir. adv. Rhet. ii. p. 292, Fabric. ; Aelian. V. H. xii. 50.). At Sparta he became the head of a new school (katastasis) of music, which appears never afterwards to have been supplanted, and the influence of which was maintained also by Xenodamus of Cythera, Xenocritus of Locris, Polymnestus of Colophon, and Sacadas of Argos (Plut. de Mus. l. c.). These matters will be examined more fully presently; but the brief outline just given is necessary for the understanding of the chronological investigation which follows.
  In studying the early history of Greek lyric poetry, nothing would be more desirable, if it were possible, than to fix the precise dates of the musicians and poets who contributed to its development ; that so we might trace the steps of its progress, in relation to the time they occupied, the social state of the people amongst whom they were made, and the order in which they followed from one another. It must, however, be confessed that, after all the labour which scholars have bestowed on the subject, there is an uncertainty, generally to the extent of half a century, and in some cases more, respecting the dates of the earliest poets, while the more important point of their relative order of succession and their distance from each other in time is beset with great difficulties. These remarks apply most strongly to Thaletas, the various dates assigned to whom, by ancient and modern writers, range over a period from before the time of Homer down to the year B. C. 620.
  How uncertain, and even fabulous, were the traditions followed by the generality of the ancient writers respecting the date of Thaletas, is manifest from the statements of Suidas, that he lived before the time of Homer, of Demetrius Magnes (ap. Diog. i. 38), that he was " very ancient, about the time of Hesiod and Homer and Lycurgus," and of the many other writers, who make him contemporary with Lycurgus, and even an elder contemporary. In nearly all the accounts, above referred to, of the removal of Thaletas to Sparta, he is said to have gone thither at the invitation of Lycurgus, who used his influence to prepare the minds of the people for his own laws ; while some even speak of him as if he were a legislator, from whom Lycurgus derived some of his laws (Sext. Empir. l. c. ; Arist. Pol. ii. 9. Β§ 5, ii. 12.). These accounts, which Aristotle condemns as anachronisms, can easily be explained. The influence of music upon character and manners was in the opinion of the ancients so great, that it was quite natural to speak of Terpander and Thaletas as fellow-workers with the great legislator of the Spartans in forming the character of the people; and then such statements were interpreted by later writers in a chronological sense; for similar traditions are recorded of Terpander as well as of Thaletas. Moreover, in the case of Thaletas, the supposed connection with Lycurgus would assume a more probable appearance on account of his coming from Crete, from whence also Lycurgus was supposed to have derived so many of his institutions; and this is, in fact, the specific form which the tradition assumed (Ephor. ap. Strab. x. p. 482; Plut. Lycurg. 4), namely, that Lycurgus, arriving at Crete in the course of his travels, there met with Thaletas, who was one of the men renowned in the island for wisdom and political abilities (hena ton nomizomenon ekei sophon kai politikon), and who, while professing to be a lyric poet, used his art as a pretext, but in fact devoted himself to political science in the same way as the ablest of legislators (poieten men dokounta lupikon melon kai proschema ten technen tauten pepoiemenon, erloi de haper hoi kratistoi ton nomotheton diaprattomenon). Add to this the great probability that later writers mistook the sense of the word nomoi in the ancient accounts of Thaletas; and his association with Lycurgus is explained. It is not worth while to discuss the statement of Jerome (Chron. s. a. 1266, B. C. 750), who says that Thales of Miletus (probably meaning Thales of Crete, for the philosopher's age is well known) lived in the reign of Romulus. Perhaps this may only be another form of the tradition which made him contemporary with Lycurgus.
  The strictly historical evidence respecting the date of Thaletas is contained in three testimonies. First, the statement of Glaucus, one of the highest authorities on the subject, that he was later than Archilochus (Plut. de Mus. 10, p. 1134, d. e.). Secondly, the fact recorded by Pausanias (i. 14. Β§ 4), that Polymnestus composed verses in his praise for the Lacedaemonians, whence it is probable that he was an elder contemporary of Polymnestus, and therefore older than Alcman, by whom Polymnestus was mentioned (Plut. de Mus. 5, p. 1133, a.). Thirdly, in his account of the second school or system (katastasis) of music at Sparta, Plutarch tells us (de Mus. 9, p. 1134, c.) that the first system was established by Terpander; but of the second the following had the best claim to be considered as the leaders (malista aitian echousin hegemones genesthai), Thaletas, Xenodamus, Xenocritus, Polymnestus, and Sacadas; and that to them was ascribed the origin of the Gymnopaedia in Lacedaemon, of the Apodeixeis in Arcadia, and of the Endymatia in Argos. This important testimony is very probably derived from the work of Glaucus. Lastly, Plutarch (de Mus. 10, p. 1134, e.) mentions a vague tradition, which is on the face of it improbable, and which is quite unworthy to be placed by the side of the other three, that Thaletas derived the rhythm called Maron and the Cretic rhythm from the music of the Phrygian flute-player Olympus (ek gar tes Olumpou auleseos Thaletan phasin exeirgasthai tauta: the context shows that Plutarch here deserts his guide, Glaucus, and sets up against him the traditions of other writers, we know not whom).
  Now, from these testimonies we obtain the results, that Thaletas was younger than Archilochus and Terpander, but older than Polymnestus and Alcman, that he was the first of the poets of the second Spartan school of music, by whose influence the great Dorian festivals which have been mentioned were either established, or, what is the more probable meaning, were systematically arranged in respect of the choruses which were performed at them.
  These conditions would all be satisfied by supposing that Thaletas began to flourish early in the seventh century B. C., provided that we accept the argument for an earlier date of Terpander than that usually assigned to him. To escape from the difficulty as Clinton does (F. H. vol. i. s. a. 644), by making Terpander later than Thaletas, is altogether inadmissible; for, if we reject Plutarch's account of the two musical schools at Sparta, the first founded by Terpander, and the second by Thaletas, the whole matter is thrown into hopeless confusion. Such a mistake, made by so eminent a chronologer, through following implicitly Eusebius and the Parian marble, is an excellent example of the danger of trusting to the positive statements of the chronographers in opposition to a connected chain of inference from more detailed testimonies. On the other hand, MΌller, while pointing out Clinton's error, appears to us to place Thaletas much too low, in consequence of accepting the tradition recorded by Plutarch respecting Olympus, whom also he places later than Terpander (Hist. Lit. vol. i. pp. 158, 159). The fact is that we have no sufficient data for the time of Olympus; and even if we had, the tradition recorded by Plutarch is much too doubtful to be set up against the evidence derived from the relations of Thaletas to Archilochus and Alcman. When MΌller says that Clinton " does not allow sufficient weight to the far more artificial character of the music and rhythms of Thaletas " (i. e. than those of Terpander), he seems to imply that a long time must necessarily have intervened between the two. Not only is there no ground for this idea, but it is opposed to analogy. There is no ground for it; for it is clear from all accounts that the second system of music was not gradually developed out of the first, by successive improvements, but was formed by the addition of new elements derived from other quarters, of which the first and chief were those introduced by Thaletas from Crete. It is also opposed to analogy, which teaches us that the period of most rapid improvement in any art is that in which it is first brought under the dominion of definite laws, by some great genius, whose first efforts are the signal for the appearance of a host of rivals, imitators, and pupils. Moreover, if there be any truth in the tradition, it would seem probable that Terpander and Thaletas were led to Sparta by very similar causes at no very distant period; and it seems most improbable that, after music had attained the degree of developement to which Terpander brought it at Sparta, the important additional elements, which existed in the Cretan system, should not have been introduced for a period of forty years, which is the interval placed by MΌller, between Terpander and Thaletas. MΌller's mode of computing backwards the date of Thaletas from that of Sacadas (B. C. 590) is altogether arbitrary; but if such a method he allowable at all, surely thirty years is far too short a time to assign as the period during which the second school of Spartan music chiefly flourished. On the whole, decidedly as Clinton is wrong as to Terpander, he is probably near the mark in fixing the period of Thaletas at B. C. 690--660 ; though it might be better to say that he deems to have flourished about B. C. 670 or 660, and how much before or after those dates cannot be determined. It appears not unlikely that he was already distinguished in Crete, while Terpander flourished at Sparta.
  The improvement effected in music by Thaletas appears to have consisted in the introduction into Sparta of that species of music and poetry which was associated with the religious rites of his native country; in which the calm and solemn worship of Apollo prevailed side by side with the more animated songs and dances of the Curetes, which resembled the Phrygian worship of the Magna Mater (MΌller, p. 160). His chief compositions were paeans and hyporchemes, which belonged respectively to these two kinds of worship. In connection with the paean he introduced the rhythm of the Cretic foot, with its resolutions in the Paeons; and the Pyrrhic dance, with its several variations of rhythm, is also ascribed to him. He seems to have used both the lyre and the flute (See MΌller, pp. 160, 161). Plutarch and other writers speak of him as a lyric poct, and Suidas mentions, as his works, mele and poiemata tina muthika, and it is pretty certain that the musical compositions of his age and school were often combined with suitable original poems, though sometimes, as we are expressly told of many of the nomes of Terpander, they were adapted to the verses of Homer and others of the older poets. Be this as it may, we have now no remains of the poetry of Thaletas. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. i. pp. 295--297; MΌller, Hist. of the Lit. of Anc. Greece, vol. i. pp. 159--161; Ulrici, Gesch. d. Hellen. Dichtkunst, vol. ii. pp. 212, foll., a very valuable account of Thaletas; Bernhardy, Geschichte der Griech. Lit. vol. i. pp. 267, 270, vol. ii. pp. 420, 421, 427.)

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited April 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Lycidas of Cydonia

KYDONIA (Ancient city) CHANIA

Rhianus, Rhianos

VINI (Ancient city) KOULOUKONA
, , 276 - 196
Rhianus, (Rhianos) of Crete. A distinguished Alexandrian poet and grammarian, who flourished in B.C. 222. Some of his epigrams are present in the Greek Anthology. His remains are edited by Saal (Bonn, 1831).

  Before I wrote the history of the war and all the sufferings and actions that heaven prepared in it for both sides, I wished to reach a decision regarding the age of a certain Messenian. This war was fought between the Lacedaemonians with their allies and the Messenians with their supporters, but received its name not from the invaders like the Persian and Peloponnesian wars, but was called Messenian from their disasters, just as the name Trojan war, rather than Greek, came to be universally applied to the war at Troy. An account of this war of the Messenians has been given by Rhianus of Bene in his epic, and by Myron of Priene. Myron's history is in prose. Neither writer achieved a complete and continuous account of the whole war from its beginning to the end, but only of the part which each selected: Myron narrated the capture of Ampheia and subsequent events down to the death of Aristodemus; Rhianus did not touch this first war at all. He described the events that in time befell the Messenians after their revolt from the Lacedaemonians, not indeed the whole of them, but those subsequent to the battle which they fought at the Great Trench, as it is called. The Messenian, Aristomenes, on whose account I have made my whole mention of Rhianus and Myron, was the man who first and foremost raised the name of Messene to renown. He was introduced by Myron into his history, while to Rhianus in his epic Aristomenes is as great a man as is the Achilles of the Iliad to Homer. As their statements differ so widely, it remained for me to adopt one or other of the accounts, but not both together, and Rhianus appeared to me to have given the more probable account as to the age of Aristomenes. (Paus. 4.6.1)
Commentary: Rhianus of Bene in Crete was of the third century B.C., a Homeric scholar and the author of various works of a mythological and quasi-historical character. Besides his Messeniaca, largely used by the author in the present account, we hear of his Heracleia, Achaica, Eliaca, and Thessalica.

This extract is from: Pausanias. Description of Greece (ed. W.H.S. Jones, Litt.D., & H.A. Ormerod, 1918). Cited Oct 2003 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.


Kyrikos Leonidas

, , 1924
A politician of the left-wing party.

Eftychis Damianakis


Related to the place

Philopoemen of Megalopolis

GORTYS (Ancient city) HERAKLIO


Markos Musuros

  A learned Greek humanist, born 1470 at Retimo, Crete; died 1517 at Rome. The son of a rich merchant, he went, when quite young, to Italy, where he studied Greek at Florence, under the celebrated John Lascaris, whom he afterwards almost equalled in classical scholarship. In 1503 he became professor of Greek at Padua, where he taught with great success. Later at Venice, he lectured on Greek, at the expense of the republic, and became a member of the Aldine Academy of Hellenists.
  Musuros rendered valuable assistance to Aldus Manutius in the preparation of the earliest printed editions of the Greek authors, and his handwriting formed the model of Aldus's Greek type. He contributed greatly in giving to the Aldine editions the accuracy that made them famous, while his reputation as a teacher was such that pupils came from all countries to hear him lecture. Erasmus, who had attended his lectures at Padua, testifies to his wonderful knowledge of Latin. To his profound scholarship the editions of Aristophanes, Plato, Pindar, Hesychinus, Athenaeus, and Pausanias owed their critical correctness.
  In 1499 he edited the first Latin and Greek lexicon, “Etymologicum Magnum”, printed by Zacharias Callierges of Crete. In 1516 he was invited by Leo X to Rome, where he lectured in the pope's gymnasium and established a Greek printing-press. In recognition of the beautiful Greek poem prefixed to the editio princeps of Plato, Pope Leo appointed him Bishop of Malvasia (Monemvasia) in the Morea, but Musuros died before starting for his distant diocese.
  Besides numerous editions of different authors he wrote several Greek epigrams which with the elegy on Plato published in the Aldine edition (Venice, 1513) are about his only extant writings.

Edmund Burke, ed.
Transcribed by: Douglas J. Potter
This text is cited June 2003 from The Catholic Encyclopedia, New Advent online edition URL below.


Dipoenus and Scyllis [Daidalidai]

Sculptors, pupils or sons of Daedalus (Paus). The very first men to become famous as marble sculptors were Dipoenus and Scyllis, born in Crete while the Median empire still existed and before Cyrus began to rule in Persia. This was approximately in the 50th Olympiad [580-577]. They moved to Sicyon, which had long been the home of all such industries.
List of works, referred by ancients:
- Apollo, Artemis, Herakles, and Athena, at Sikyon
- Athena, at Kleonai
- The Dioskouroi, their wives and children, at Argos; ebony and ivory
- Herakles, at Tiryns
- Herakles, in Lydia, plundered by Cyrus (547/6)
- Athena, at Lindos, later in Constantinople (from ca. A.D. 330)

Dipoenus and Scyllis, (Dipoinos kai Skullis), very ancient Greek statuaries, who are always mentioned together. They belonged to the style of art called Daedalian. Pausanias says that they were disciples of Daedalus, and, according to some, his sons. (ii. 15.1, iii. 17.6.) There is, however, no doubt that they were real persons; but they lived near the end, instead of the beginning, of the period of the Daedalids. Pliny says that they were born in Crete, during the time of the Median empire, and before the reign of Cyrus, about the 50th Olympiad (B. C. 580: the accession of Cyrus was in B. C. 559). From Crete they went to Sicyon, which was for a long time the chief seat of Grecian art. There they were employed on some statues of the gods, but before these statues were finished, the artists, complaining of some wrong, betook themselves to the Aetolians. The Sicyonians were immediately attacked by a famine and drought, which, they were informed by the Delphic oracle, would only be removed when Dipoenus and Scyllis should finish the statues of the gods, which they were induced to do by great rewards and favours. The statues were those of Apollo, Artemis, Heracles, and Athena (Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 4.§ 1), whence it seems likely that the whole group represented the seizure of the tripod, like that of Amyclaeus. Pliny adds that Ambracia, Argos, and Cleonae, were full of the works of Dipoenus. (§ 2.) He also says (§§ 1, 2), that these artists were the first who were celebrated for sculpturing in marble, and that they used the white marble of Paros. Pausanias mentions, as their works, a statue of Athena, at Cleonae (l. c.), and at Argos a group representing Castor and Pollux with their wives, Elaeira and Phoebe, and their sons, Anaxis and Mnasinous. The group was in ebony, except some few parts of the horses, which were of ivory. (Paus. ii. 22.6.) Clement of Alexandria mentions these statues of the Dioscuri, and also statues of Hercules of Tiryns and Artemis of Munychia, at Sicyon. (Protrep.; comp. Plin. l. c.) The disciples of Dipoenus and Scyllis were Tectaeus and Angelion, Learchus of Rhegium, Doxycleidas and his brother Medon, Dontas, and Theocles, who were all four Lacedaemonians. (Paus. ii. 32. 4, iii. 17.6, v. 17. 1, vi. 19.9.)

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Dipoenus, (Dipoinos)

A Greek sculptor, born in Crete, who flourished in Argos and Sicyon about B.C. 560. In conjunction with his countryman Scyllis he founded an influential school of sculpture in the Peloponnesus of the Daedalian style.


KNOSSOS (Minoan settlement) CRETE
Sculptor, father of sculptor Amphion.

Acestor (Akestor), a sculptor mentioned by Pausanias (vi. 17.2) as having executed a statue of Alexibius, a native of Heraea in Arcadia, who had gained a victory in the pentathlon at the Olympic games. He was born at Cnossus, or at any rate exercised his profession there for some tine. (Paus. x. 15.4.) He had a son named Amphion, who was also a sculptor, and had studied under Ptolichus of Corcyra (Paus. vi. 3.2); so that Acestor must have been a contemporary of the latter, who flourished about Ol. 82. (B. C. 452.)


Amphion. A sculptor, son of Acestor, pupil of Ptolichus of Corcyra, and teacher of Piso of Calaureia, was a native of Cnossus, and flourished about B. C. 428 or 424. He executed a group in which Battus, the colonizer of Cyrene, was represented in a chariot, with Libya crowning him, and Cyrene as the charioteer. This group was dedicated at Delphi by the people of Cyrene. (Paus. vi. 3. 2, x. 15.4)


KYDONIA (Ancient city) CHANIA
Aristocles of Cydonia was one of the most ancient sculptors; and though his age could not be clearly fixed, it was certain that he flourished before Zancle was called Messene (Paus. v. 25.6), that is, before 494 B. C.

Krisilas, Kresilas, Cresilas, 5th c. B.C.

The school of Phidias had rivals in the naturalistic school which followed Myron, including his son, Lycius, and Cresilas of Cydonia

  Kresilas of Kydonia in Crete (not necessarily identical with the "Ctesilaus" who "made a Doryphoros and a wounded Amazon": Pliny in N.H. 34.75) is often given the Sciarra type, though his style is only known from the Perikles portrait (Ch. 6.3) if the copies we have indeed reproduce the statue noted by Pliny, N.H. 34.74 and Pausanias (1.28.2 -- but omitting the sculptor). "Cydon" probably repeats Kresilas's own ethnic, a slip which may have eliminated another name (Strongylion, whose Amazon is praised by Pliny in N.H. 34.82?); while Phradmon of Argos is known for three other works, all lost.

This extract is from: Andrew Stewart, One Hundred Greek Sculptors: Their Careers and Extant Works. Cited Oct 2003 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains extracts from the ancient literature, bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.



KNOSSOS (Minoan settlement) CRETE
Iophon the Cnossian, a guide, produced responses in hexameter verse, saying that Amphiaraus gave them to the Argives who were sent against Thebes. These verses unrestrainedly appealed to popular taste. Except those whom they say Apollo inspired of old none of the seers uttered oracles, but they were good at explaining dreams and interpreting the flights of birds and the entrails of victims.

Seven Sages


FESTOS (Minoan settlement) HERAKLIO
Epimenides. A Cretan, contemporary with Solon, and born perhaps in B.C. 659, at Phaestus, in the island of Crete, according to some accounts, or at Cnosus according to others. Many marvellous tales are related of him. It is said that, going by his father's order in search of a sheep, he laid himself down in a cave, where he fell asleep and slept for fifty years, on which legend Goethe has written a poem. He then made his appearance among his fellow-citizens with long hair and a flowing beard, and with a knowledge of medicine and natural history which then appeared more than human. Another story told of this Cretan was that he had the power of sending his soul out of his body and recalling it at pleasure; that he had familiar intercourse with the gods, and possessed the power of prophecy. The event of his life by which he is best known was his visit to Athens at the request of the inhabitants, in order to pave the way for the legislation of Solon by purifications and propitiatory sacrifices. These rites were intended, according to the spirit of the age, to allay the feuds and party dissensions which prevailed there; and, although what he enjoined was mostly of a religious nature (for instance, the sacrifice of a human victim, the consecration of a temple to the Eumenides, and of two altars to Hybris and Anaidea, the two evil powers which were exerting their influence on the Athenians), there can be little doubt that his object was political, and that Solon's constitution would hardly have been accepted had it not been recommended and sanctioned by some person who, like Epimenides, claimed from men little less than the veneration due to a superior being.
  The Athenians wished to reward Epimenides with wealth and public honours, but he refused to accept any remuneration, and demanded only a branch of the sacred olive-tree and a decree of perpetual friendship between Athens and his native city. Epimenides is said to have lived, after his return to Crete, to the age of 157 years. Other accounts give his age as nearly 230 years. Divine honours were paid him by the Cretans after his death. Epimenides composed a theogony and other poems concerning religious mysteries. He wrote also a poem on the Argonautic Expedition, and other works, which are entirely lost. His treatise on oracles and responses, mentioned by St. Jerome, is said to have been the work from which St. Paul quotes in the epistle to Titus.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Nov 2003 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Epimenides, 7th cent. BC

KNOSSOS (Minoan settlement) CRETE
Epimenides. A poet and prophet of Crete. His father's name was Dosiades or Agesarces. We have an account of him in Diogenes Laertius (i. c. 10), which, however, is a very uncritical mixture of heterogeneous traditions, so that it is difficult, if not altogether imposible, to discover its real historical substance. The mythical character of the traditions of Epimenides is sufficiently indicated by the fact of his being called the son of a nynmph, and of his being reckoned among the Curetes. It seems, however, pretty clear, that he was a native of Phaestus in Crete (Diog. Laert. i. 109; Plut. Sol. 12; de, Defect. Orac. 1), and that he spent the greater part of his life at Cnossus, whence he is sometimes called a Cnossian.
  There is a story that when yet a boy, he was sent out by his father to fetch a sheep, and that seeking shelter from the heat of the midday sun, he went into a cave. He there fell into a sleep in which lie remained for fifty-seven years. On waking he sought for the sheep, not knowing how long he had been sleeping, and was astonished to find everything around him altered. When lie returned home, he found to his great amazement, that his younger brother had in the meantime grown an old man.
  The time at which Epimenides lived, is determined by his invitation to Athens when he had already arrived at an advanced age. He was looked upon by the Greeks as a great sage and as the favourite of the gods. The Athenians who were visited by a plague in consequence of the crime of Cylon, consulted the Delphic oracle about the means of their delivery. The god commanded them to get their city purified, and the Athenians sent out Nicias with a ship to Crete to invite Epimenides to come and undertake the purification. Epimenides accordingly came to Athens, about B. C. 596 or Olymp. 46, and performed the desired task by certain mysterious rites and sacrifices, in consequence of which the plague ceased. The grateful Athenians decreed to reward him with a talent and the vessel which was to carry him back to his native island. But Epimenides refused the money, and only desired that a friendship should be established between Athens and Cnossus.   Whether Epimenides died in Crete or at Sparta, which in later times boasted of possessing his tomb (Diog. Laert. i. 115), is uncertain, but he is said to have attained the age of 154, 157, or even of 299 years. Such statements, however, are as fabulous as the story about his fifty-seven years' sleep.
  According to some accounts, Epimenides was reckoned among the seven wise men of Greece (Diog. Laert. Prooem. § 13; Plut. Sol. 12); but all that tradition has handed down about him suggests a very different character from that of those seven, and he must rather be ranked in the class of priestly bards and sages who are generally comprised under the name of the Orphici; for everything we hear of him, is of a priestly or religious nature: he was a purifying priest of superhuman knowledge and wisdom, a seer and a prophet, and acquainted with the healing powers of plants. These notions about Epimenides were propagated throughout antiquity, and it was probably owing to the great charm attached to his name, that a series of works, both in prose and in verse, were attributed to him, though few, if any, can be considered to have been genuine productions of Epimenides, the age at which he he lived was certainly notan age of prose composition in Greece.
  Diogenes Laertius (i. 112) notices as prose works, one on sacrifices, and another on the Political Constitution of Crete. There was also a Letter on the Constitution which Minos had given to Crete; it was said to have been addressed by Epimenides to Solon; it was written in the modern Attic dialect, and was proved to be spurious by Demetrius of Magnesia. Diogenes himself has preserved another letter, which is likewise addressed to Solon; it is written in the Doric dialect, but is no more genuine than the former. The reputation of Epimenides as a poet may have rested on a somewhat surer foundation; it is at any rate more likely that he should have composed such poetry as Chresmo and Katharmoi than any other (Suidas, s. v. Epimenides; Strab. x ; Paus. i. 14.4). It is, however, very doubtful whether he wrote the Genesis kai Theogonia of the Curetes and Corybantes in 5000 verses, the epic on Jason and the Argonauts in 6500, and the epic on Minos and Rhadamanthys in 4000 verses; all of which works are mentioned by Diogenes. There cannot, however, be any doubt but that there existed in antiquity certain old-fashioned poems written upon skins; and the expression, Epimenideion derma was used by the ancients to designate anything old-fshioned, obsolete, and curious.
  An allusion to Epimenides seems to be made in St. Paul's Epistle to Titus (i. 12). Comp. Fabric. Bibl. Grace. vol. i. pp. 30, &c., 844; Hockh, Kreta, vol. iii. p. 246, &c.; Bode, Gesch. der Hellen. Dichtk. vol. i. p. 463, &c., and more especially C. F. Heinrich, Epimenides aus Creta, Leipzig, 1801, 8vo.

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited April 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Dikteos Aris

, , 1919 - 1983
He was a poet, essayist and translator.

Sfakinanakis Giannis

, , 1903 - 1987
A novelist, short-story writer and essayist.

Parren Kalliroe

, , 1859 - 1940
She was the first Greek feminist.

Lucillus (Loukillos)

TARRA (Ancient city) SFAKIA
Lucillus (Loukillos) of Tarrha, in Crete, wrote a work on the city of Thessalonica (Steph. Byz. s. v. Phessalonike), a commentary on the Argonautica of Apollonius Rhodius, and a collection of Proverbs, which, with those of Didymus of Alexandria, appear to have been the source of most of the later collections of the kind. Thus Zenobius expressly states that he collected his proverbs from Lucillus and Didymus. The proverbs of Lucillus are also quoted by Tzetzes (Chil. viii. 149), by Apostolius, and by Stephanus (s. v. Tarra, reading Loukillos for Loukios, comp. s. v. Kalarna)

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2006 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

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