ΨΑΜΑΘΙΑ (Αρχαία πόλη) ΤΟΥΡΚΙΑ
(Latin Studium), the most important monastery at Constantinople, situated not far from the Propontis in the section of the city called Psamathia. It was founded in 462 or 463 by the consul Studios (Studius), a Roman who had settled in Constantinople, and was dedicated to St. John the Baptist. Its monks came from the monastery of Acoemetae.
At a later date the laws and customs of Studion were taken as models by the monks of Mount Athos and of many other monasteries of the Byzantine Empire; even today they have influence. The Studites gave the first proof of their devotion to the Faith and the Church during the schism of Acacius (484- 519); they also remained loyal during the storms of Iconoclastic dispute in the eighth and ninth centuries.
Abbot Nicholas (848-5 and 855-58) refused to recognize the Patriarch Photius and was on this account imprisoned in the Studion. He was succeeded by five abbots who recognized the patriarch. The brilliant period of the Studion came to an end at this time.
As regards the intellectual life of the monastery in other directions it is especially celebrated for its famous school of calligraphy which was established by St. Theodore. In the eighth and eleventh centuries the monastery was the centre of Byzantine religious poetry; a number of the hymns are still used in the Greek Church. Besides St. Theodore and Nicetas, a number of other theological writers are known.
In 1204 the monastery was destroyed by the Crusaders and was not rebuilt until 1290; the greater part of it was again destroyed when the Turks captured Constantinople (1453). The only part now in existence is the Church of St. John Baptist, probably the oldest remaining church in Constantinople, a basilica which still preserves from the early period two stories of columns on the sides and a wooden ceiling.
Klemens Loffler, ed.
Transcribed by: Michael C. Tinkler
This extract is cited June 2003 from The Catholic Encyclopedia, New Advent online edition URL below.
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