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Religious figures biography (15)


Manuel Calecas

Calecas Manuel (Manouel Kalekas), a relative of Joannes Calecas, appears to have lived about A. D. 1360, as he combated the doctrines of Palamas. He is said to have been a monk of the Dominican order, and was the author of several works. Though he himself was a Greek, he wrote against the Greek church and in favour of that of Rome, for which he is, of course, highly praised by the adherents of the Roman church. The following list contains those of his works which are published :
1. "Libri iv adversus errores Graecorum de Processione Spiritus Sancti". The Greek original has not yet been printed, but a Latin translation was made at the command of Pope Martin V. by Ambrosius Camaldulensis, and was edited with a commentary by P. Stenartius, Ingolstadt, 1616.
2. "De Essentia et Operatione Dei" (peri ousias kai energeias), was edited with a Latin translation and notes by Combefisius, in vol. ii. of his Auctarium Novissinium Bibl. Patr., Paris, 1672. This work is directed against the heresies of Palamas, and was approved by the synod of Constantinople of 1351.
3. "De Fide deque Principiis Catholicae Fidei" (peri pisteos kai peri ton archon tes katholikes pisteos). This work, consisting of ten chapters, was edited with a Latin translation and notes by Combefisius, in his Auctarium n entioned above. The Latin translation is reprinted in the Bibl. Patr. , ed. Lugdun. About ten more of his works are extant in MS., but have never et been published.

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Nov 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Cedrenus, Georgius

Cedrenus, Georgius (Georgos ho Kedrenos, a Greek monk, of whose life nothing is known, lived in the eleventh century, and is the author, or rather compiler, of an historical work (Sunopsis historion) which begins with the creation of the world and goes down to the year 1057. This extensive work is written in the form of annals, and must be perused with great caution, as its author was not only very deficient in historical knowledge, but shews a great want of judgment and a degree of credulity which may suit a writer of legends, but which becomes absurd and ridiculous in historians. The latter part of the Synopsis, which treats of events of which Cedrenus was a contemporary, is not quite so bad, but it still shews that the author was utterly unable to form a judgment respecting the times in which he lived. However, as the work is extensive and contains an abundance of facts, it may frequently be used in conjunction with other authors; but a careful writer will seldom make him his sole authority, except where he has copied good sources.
  A great number of passages, may long episodes, of the Synopsis are also found in the Annals of Joannes Scylitzes Curopalates, the contemporary of Cedrenus, and the question has often been discussed, whether Curopalates copied Cedrenus or Cedrenus Curopalates. The work of Curopalates goes down to the year 1081, but the latter writer was a man of much more intellect and judgment than Cedrenus, and there is no doubt that Cedrenus was the plagiarist, although, of course, he can have used only the first part of the annals of Curopalates. The style of Cedrenus is very barbarous. Oudin thinks, but without sufficient evidence, that Cedrenus lived in the twelfth century.
  The general Latin title of the Sunopsis is, "Compendium Historiarum ab Orbe Condita ad Isaacum Comnenum (1057)". The first edition, published by Xylander, Basel, 1506, with a Latin translation and a preface, is very deficient, as Xylander perused an incomplete MS. A good edition was published by Goar and Fabrot, together with the Annals of Curopalates, Paris, 1647, with a new translation, a glossary of barbarisms, and a preface of Fabrot. This edition is complete, or very nearly so, the editors having collated good MSS., and paid particular attention to the numerous passages taken from Curopalates; it belongs to the Paris collection of the Byzantine historians, and is reprinted in the Venice collection.

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Nov 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Chrysoberges, Lucas

Chrysoberges, Lucas (Loukas Chrusoberpses), an important writer on the Canon law and other ecclesiastical and religious subjects, was chosen patriarch of Constantinople in A. D. 1155, presided at the synod of Constantinople in 1166, and died in 1167. His works are mostly lost, and only some fragments are printed. Thirteen "Decreta Synodalia" are contained in Leunclavius, "Jus Gracco-Romanum". They treat on important subjects, as, for instance, No. 2. "De Clericis qui se immiscent saecularibus Negotiis"; No. 4. "De indecoris et scenicis Ritibus sanctorum notariorum Festo abrogandis"; No. 13. "Ne Clerici turpilucra fiant, aut medici", &c. A Greek poem in iambic verses, and another poem on fasting, both extant in MS. in the imperial library at Vienna, are attributed to Chrysoberges, and it is believed that he wrote his poem on fasting at the request of a lady, before he was appointed to the patriarchal see of Constantinople.
  One Maximus Chrysoberges, who lived about 1400, wrote "Oratio de Processione Spiritus Sancti", dedicated to the Cretans, and which is printed with a Latin translation in the second vol. of Leo Allatius, "Graecia Orthodoxa".

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Nov 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Constantinus Diaconus

Constantinus Diaconus and chartophylax at the metropolitan church of Constantinople, wrote "Oratio encomiastica in Omnes Sanctos Martyres", the Greek text of which is extant in MS., and which is referred to in the Acts of the second council of Nicaea in "Acta Patruim". He lived before the eighth century.

Daphnopates Theodorus

Daphnopates Theodorus (Theodoros Daphnopates), an ecclesiastical writer, who lived about the middle of the tenth century after Christ. He is called a patrician and sometimes magister, and was invested with the office of primus a secretis at the court of Constantinople. He seems to have written a history of Byzantium (Joan. Scylitzes, Praef.; Cedren. Hist.), but no distinct traces of it are left. Of his many theological writings two only are printed:
1. An oration upon the transfer of the hand of John the Baptist from Antioch to Constantinople, which took place in A. D. 956. The year after, when the anniversary of this event was celebrated, Theodorus delivered his oration upon it. A Latin translation of it is printed in the Acta Sanctorum under the 29th of August. The Greek original, of which MSS. are extant in several libraries.
2. Apanthismata, that is, extracts from various works of St. Chrysostom, in thirty-three chapters. They are printed in the editions of the works of St. Chrysostom.

Eustratius (Eustratios), a presbyter of the Greek church at Constantinople, is the author of a work on the Condition of the Human Soul after Death, which is still extant. Respecting his life and the time at which he lived, nothing is known, except what can be gathered from the work itself. It is directed against those who maintainted that the souls ceased to act and operate as soon as they quitted the human body. Photius (Bibl. Cod. 171) knew the work, and made some extracts from it, which is a proof that Eustratius must have lived before Photius. Further, as Eustratius repeatedly mentions the works of Dionysius Areiopagita he must have lived after the publication of those works, which appear to have been circulated about A. D. 500. It is therefore very probable that Eustratits lived at the time of Eutychius, patriarch of Constantinople, that is, about A. D. 560, as in fact Eustratius himself says in almost as many words. His work was first edited by L. Allatius in his de Occidentalium atque Orientalium perpetua in Dogmate Purgatorii consensione, Rom. 1655. The style of Eustratius, as Photius remarks, is clear, though very different from classic Greek, and his arguments are generally sound.

Georgius Syncellus

Georgius Syncellus; termed also Abbas and Monachus, lived in the latter part of the eighth and beginning of the ninth century. He obtained his distinguishing epithet from having been syncellus or personal attendant of Tarasius, patriarch of Constantinople, who died A. D. 806. Theophlanes, who was his friend, describes him as a man of talent and learning, especially well versed in chronographical and historical subjects, which he had studied very deeply. He died in "the orthodox faith," without completing his principal (and indeed only known) work, the completion of which he strongly urged, as his dying request, upon his friend Theophanes.
  He is the author of a chronography, or chronicle, the title of which in full is as follows: Ekloge Chronographias suntageisa upo. Georgion Monachou Sunkellou gegonotos Tarasion Patriarchon Konstantinoupoleos apo Adam mechri Diokletianou, A select Chronicle, drawn up by George the Mork, syncellus of Tarasius, Patriarch of Constantinople, from Adam to Diocletian. The author states that he intended to bring his work down to A. D. 800; but, as already stated, he was cut off by death, and the work only comes down to the accession of Diocletian, A. D. 284. The work is included in the various editions ot the Byzantine writers. Goarus, the Parisian editor, contended that we have the work of Syncellas in a complete form, but the contrary opinion seems to be the better founded. Possevino, Vossius, and others have identified Syncellus with Georgius Hamartolus; but Allatius has shown that this identification is erroneous. Syncellus has transcribed verbatim a considerable part of the Chronicon of Eusebius, so that his work has been employed to restore or complete the Greek text of the Chronicon. The Chronographia of Theophanes, which extends from A. D. 285 to A. D. 813, may be regarded as a continuation of that of Syncellus, and completes the author's original design. The Bonn edition of Syncellus is edited by W. Dindorf, and, with the brief Chronographia of Nicephorus of Constantinople, occupies two volumes 8vo., 1829. (Theophanes, Prooemium ad Chronog.; Cedren. Compend. sub init.; Allatius, Ibid. p. 24 ; Fabric. Bibl. Gr. vol. vii.; Cave, Hist. Litt. vol. i.)

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Nov 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Hesychius. Of Constantinople, a writer of unknown date, who wrote Eis chalkoun ophin logoi d. Photius, from whom alone we learn any thing of this writer, says that," so far as could be judged from this piece, lie appeared to be orthodox." Probably lie was the Hesychius, one of the clergy of Constantinople, who raised in that city the cry of heresy against Eunomius, apparently about A. D. 360. Thorschmidius thinks that he was perhaps the author of the Ecclesiastical History, known by one or two citations, and generally regarded as a work of Hesychius of Jerusalem. (Phot. Bibl. Cod. 51; Philostorg. H. E. vi. 1 ; Fabric. Bibl. Gr. vol. vii.)

Euthymius Zigabenus

Euthymius Zigabenus, a Greek monk of the convent of the Virgin Mary at Constantinople, lived about the beginning of the 12th century of our era, at the time of the emperor Alexius Comnenus, with whom he was connected by intimate friendship. In A. D. 1118, when the emperor died, Euthymius was still alive; and he himself says that he twice heard the emperor dispute against the enemies of the Greek church -that is, probably against the Latins. Respecting his life, see especially Anna Comnena (lib. xv.) and L. Allatius (De Cosens. utr. Eccles. ii. 10. 5). Euthymius was the author of several works, all of which are still extant in numerous MSS., but the following only have been printed:
1. Panoplia dogmatike tes orthodoxou pisteos, directed against heretics of every class, was written by the command of Alexius Comnenus. It is divided into 28 titles, and its substance is taken chiefly from the early ecclesiastical fathers. A Latin translation of it was published by P. F. Zinus, Venice, 1555, reprinted at Lyons, 1556, and at Paris, 1560. The Greek original has not yet been published, except the last title, which is contained in Sylburg's Saracenica.
2. Victory and Triumph over the impious, manifold, and execrable sect of the Messaliani, &c., together with fourteen anathemata pronounced against them. It was edited in Greek, with a Latin version and notes, by J. Tollius, in his Iter Italicum, Traject. ad Rhen. 1696.
3. A Commentary on all the Psalms of David, and on the ten Cantica. The Greek original has not yet been printed; but a Latin translation by Philip Saulus first appeared at Verona, 1560, and has often been reprinted.
4. A commentary on the four Gospels, is a compilation from St. Chrysostom and others of the early fathers. The Greek original has never been printed, but there is a very good Latin translation by J. Hentenius, Louvain, 1544, reprinted at Paris, 1547, 1560, and 1602. The work is considered one of great value, both in style and matter, and has often been made great use of by modern divines.

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Dec 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Ignatius of Constantinople

Ignatius of Constantinople, where he was deacon and sceuophylax, or keeper of the sacred vessels in the great church. He lived in the latter part of the eighth and the beginning of the ninth century, dulling the patriarchate of Tarasius (A. D. 784-806) and Nicephorus (A. D. 806-815), with both of whom he appears to have been connected either as disciple or friend. He was instructed by Tarasius in poetical composition. He was raised to the metropolitan see of Nicaea, but at what date is not ascertained. It was certainly not till after the second Nicene, or seventh oecumenical council, at which Hypatius appeared as archbishop of Nicaea; and it was probably not till after the death of Tarasius, or even of Nicephorus, who died deposed and in exile A. D. 828. Nothing is known of the time of the death of Ignatius. He wrote, 1. Bios Tarasiou tou Patriarchou Konstantinoupoleos, Vita Tarasii Patriarchae CPolitani. This is extant in the original Greek in MS., but has not been published. A Latin version is given in the De Probatis Sanetorum Vitis of Surius, and in the Acta Sanctorum of the Bollandists, Februar. 25, vol. iii. p. 576. 2. Bios tou hagiou Nikephorou, Patriarchou Konstantinoupoleos, Vita S. Nicephori Patriarchae CPolitani. This is given in the Acta Sanctorum, Martlii. As in the title of this work the author is called Diaconus CPolitanus, we are led to suppose that he was not yet archbishop of Nicaea when he wrote it, which must have been after the death of Nicephorus. He wrote several other works, which are unpublished, and a list of which is given by Fabricius.
(Suidas, s. v. Ignatios; Acta Sanctorum, ll. cc.; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. i., vi., vii., x)

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Jan 2006 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Ignatius Iconomachus

Ignatius Iconomachus, contemporary of Theodore Studita, who lived in the latter half of the eighth and the beginning of the ninth century, wrote some acrostich verses against the use of images in divine worship. These, with some similar efforts of perverted ingenuity by other persons, are quoted, with a laboured confutation, by Theodore, who was a zealous champion of images. The structure of these pieces is singular : each consists of but a few lines, of which the initial letters, taken consecutively, the medial letters, and the final letters, compose a sentence. The confutation or tion is in prose. (Theodorus Studita, Opera, apud Sirmond. Opera Varia, vol. v. p. 169, seq.) According to Montfaucon there are many omissions in the verses as given by Sirmond, which he states might be supplied from a MS. then in the Coislin Library; but as the poem in Sirmond's edition has the appearance of completeness, the accuracy of Montfaucon's statement may be doubted. (Fabric. Bibl. Gr. vol. vii.)

Josephus Hypomnestici or Christianus

Leontius of Byzantium or Constantinople

Leontius of Byzantium or Constantinople, an ecclesiastical writer of the latter part of the sixth and the commencement of the seventh century, sometimes designated, from his original profession, SCHOLASTICUS, i. e. the pleader. Several works of about the same period bear the name of Leontius, distinguished by the surnames of BYZANTINUS, PRESBYTER CONSTANTINOPOLITANUS, CYPRIUS, HIEROSOLYMITANUS, MONACHUS, NEAPOLITANUS, and PRESBYTER et ABBAS ST. SABAE; and as there is difficulty in determining how many individuals are designated by these various epithets, and which of the various works ascribed to them should be assigned to each, it will be desirable to compare the present article, which refers to the author of the work De Sectis, with Nos. 20 and 26.
  According to Cave, Leontius, having given up the exercise of his profession as a scholasticus, retired to the monastery which had been founded by St. Saba near Jerusalem, but was rejected by that saint for his adherence to the obnoxious tenets of Origen. But Cave is manifestly in error, and has confounded two different persons of the same name and place. The Leontius of Byzantium, who was excluded by St. Saba for Origenism, died in the reign of the emperor Justinian I. (Cyril. Scythopolit. Vita S. Sabae, c. 86, apud Coteler. Eccles. Graec. Monum. vol. iii. p. 366), but the work De Sectis appears from internal evidence to have been written at least half a century after Justinian's death, and must therefore be the work of a later Leontius. Photius (cod. 231) and Nicephors Callisti (H. E. xviii. 48) call the author of the De Sectis a monk, and do not notice his earlier profession. Galland (Bibl. Patrum, vol. xii. Prolegom. c. 20) says that Leontius retired from the bar, and embraced a monastic life in Palestine; but we apprehend this is only a supposition, intended to account for the designation HIEROSOLYMITANUS in the title of some of the works, which he ascribes to this Leontius. Oudin, who is disposed to identify several of the Leontii, supposes that the exscholasticus became a monk and abbot of St. Saba, near Jerusalem. (De Scriptorib. Eccles. vol. i. col. 1462, &c.)
  The works which appear to be by this Leontius are as follows:
1. Scholia, Scholia, " taken down from the lips of Theodorus, the most godly abbot and wisest philosopher, accomplished alike in sacred and profane learning." This work, which is more commonly cited by the title De Sectis, consists of ten divisions called pracheis, Actiones: it was first published with a Latin version by Leunclavius, in a volume containing several other pieces, 8vo. Basel, 1578, and was reprinted in the Auctarium Bibliothecae Patrum of Ducaeus, vol. i. fol. Paris, 1624; in the Bibliotheca Patrum, vol. xi. fol. Paris, 1644; and in the Bibliotheca Patrum of Galland, vol. xii. p. 625, &c., fol. Venice, 1778. The Latin version alone is given in several other editions of the Bibliotheca Patrum.
2. Contra Eutychianos et Nestorianos Libri Tres. s. Confutatio utriusque Fietionis inter se contrariae: some speak of the three books into which this treatise is divided as distinct works.
3. Liber adversus eos qui proferunt nobis quaedam Apollinarii, falso inscripta nomine Sanctorum Patrum s. Adversus Fraudes Apollinaristarum.
4. Solutiones Argumentationum Severi.
5. Dubitationes hypotheticae et definientes contra eos qui negant in Christo post Unionem duas veras Naturas. These pieces have not been printed in the original, but Latin versions from the papers of Franciscus Turrianus were published by Canisius in his Lectiones Antiquae, vol. iv. (or vol. i. p. 525, &c. ed. Basnage), and were reprinted in the Bibliotheca Patrum, vol. ix. fol. Lyon, 1677, and in the above mentioned volume of the Bibliotheca of Galland.
6. Apologia Concilii Chalcedonensis. This was printed with a Latin version and notes, by Antonio Bongiovanni, in the Concilia, vol. vii. p. 799, ed. Mansi, fol. Florence, 1762, and was reprinted by Galland, l. c. In the title Leontius is called Monachus Hierosolymitanus, but the word Hierosolymitanus is possibly an error of the transcriber. At any rate Galland identifies the writer with our Leontius; and the subject of the work makes it probable that he is right.
7. Adversus Eutychianos (s. Severianos) et Nestorianos, in octo libros distinctum. This work is described by Canisius as being extant in MS. at Munich, and by Fabricius as occurring in the catalogue of the Palatine library.
8. Liber de Duplici Natura in Christo contra Haeresin Monophysitarum. Labbe and Cave speak of this as extant in MS. at Vienna; and they add to it Disputatio contra Philosophum Arianum, but this last piece seems to be an extract from Gelasius of Cyzicus, and is probably one of the discussions between the "holy bishops" of the orthodox party and the "philosophers" who embraced the opposite side. If so, the Leontius who took part in it was not our Leontius, but a much older person, bishop of the Cappadocian Caesareia, contemporary of Athanasius, by whom he is mentioned, and author of several works not now extant.
9. According to Nicephorus Callisti (l. c.), our Leontius wrote also "an admirable work" in thirty books, in which he entirely overthrew the tritheistic heresy of Joannes Philoponus, and firmly established the orthodox doctrine; but this work, if Nicephorus has correctly described it, is lost
  A homily, entitled Oratio in medium Pentecostem et in Caecum a Nativitate, necnon in illud: Nolite iudicare secundum faciem, by "Leontius presbyter Constantinopolitanus", was published by Combefis, with a Latin version, in his Auctarium Novum, vol. i. fol. Paris, 1648. The editors of the Bibliotheca Patrum (vol. ix. fol. Lyon, 1677), by placing this piece among the works of our Leontius, appear to identify the writer with him; and Cave, though with hesitation, ascribes the homily to him. But it is not given by Galland; and Fabricius (Bibl. Graec. vol. viii. p. 321) ascribes the homily to Leontius of Neapolis. [No. 20.] A homily on the parable of the good Samaritan, printed among the supposititious works of Chrysostom (Opera, vol. vii. p. 506, ed. Savill), is ascribed by Allatius and Fabricius (Biblioth. Graec. vol. viii. p. 326, vol. x. p. 304) to " Leontius of Jerusalem," who is perhaps the same as our Leontius. There are various homilies extant in MS. by "Leontius presbyter Constantinopolitanus." (Photius and Niceph. Callisti, ll. cc.; Canisius, Vita Leontii, apud Biblioth. Patrum, vol. ix. fol. Lyon, 1677, and Lectiones Antiquae, vol. i. pp. 527, &c., ed. Basnage; Cave, Hist. Litt. vol. i. p. 543; Vossius, De Historicis Graecis, lib. iv. c. 18; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. viii. p. 309, &c., 318, vol. xii. p. 648; Oudin, de Scriptorib. et Scriptis Eccles. vol i. col. 1462; Mansi, Concilia, vol. vii. col. 797, &c.; Galland. Biblioth. Patrum, vol. xii. Prolegom. c. 20.)

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2006 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Matthaeus Panaretus

Matthaeus (Mattaios), Angelus, surnamed Panaretus (Angelos ho Panaretos), was a Byzantine monk, who held the office of ecclesiastical quaestor, but whose time is very uncertain. Cave, however, thinks him to be identical with the monk Panaretus Protovestiarius, mentioned by Pachymeres (v. 17, 21), and who was one of the ecclesiastical ambassadors, whom the emperor Michael VIII. Palaeologus sent in 1273 (74) to pope Gregory X. and the Council of Lyon, for the purpose of effecting a re-union of the Latin and Greek churches. Matthaeus wrote: 1. "Antithesis contra Thomam Aquinatem de Processione Spiritus Sancti." 2. Against the same a treatise on the purgatory, entitled Pos estin ho endikon topos entha hai psuchai kathairontai prin, &c. 3. " Dissertatio contra Latinos de Primatu Papae." 4. " Refutatio Sex Capitum a Latinis editorum in Defensionem Processionis Spiritus Sancti ex Patre et Filio." 5. " Demonstratio in quot Absurditates Latini incident dum Spiritum Sanctum etiam a Filio procedere asserunt." 6. "Dissert. de aliis XXII. Latinorum Erroribus." 7. " Dissert. contra Latinos de Azymis." These works are extant in MSS. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. xi. p. 76; Cave, Hist. Liter. Append. p. 174, ed. Geneva.)

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2006 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

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