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Listed  10  sub titles with search on: Information about the place
for destination:  "SPARTI , Ancient city , LACONIA " .
Information about the place (10)
   The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites (1)
   Perseus Project index (1)
   Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1)
   Beazley Archive Dictionary (1)
   Educational institutions WebPages (1)
   Links (2)
   Non-profit organizations WebPages (1)
   The Catholic Encyclopedia (1)
   Greek & Roman Geography (ed. William Smith) (1)

Information about the place (10)

 The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites
  In the heart of the fertile Eurotas valley ca. 56 km S of Tegea and 48 km N of Gytheion; the alluvial soil is fertile, the climate auspicious, and the low hill site protected by mountains and sea. Very few prehistoric remains are known, but a major contemporary settlement has been excavated about 3 km NE at the Menelaion. About 950 B.C. at the earliest Sparta was occupied by Dorians and settled as an agglomeration of villages (Pitana, Limnai, Mesoa, and Kynosura); the city wall, not begun until the late 4th c. and eventually completed in 184, measured 10 km in circumference and enclosed an elliptical area 3 x 2 km lying N-S.
  In the 8th c. B.C. led by its two kings, the city embarked on the warmaking which by about 545 had brought "two-fifths of the Peloponnese" (Thuc.) under her immediate control. The inhabitants of the fertile Eurotas and Pamisos (Messenia) valleys were reduced to serfdom (Helots); those occupying more marginal land remained free but were denied political rights in Sparta (perioikoi). Thereafter Sparta expanded through diplomacy and by 500 B.C. had organized its subject-allies into the Peloponnesian League. In 405, supported by its allies and Persian gold it defeated Athens, but its supremacy in Greece was soon cut short by the Thebans: defeat at Leuktra in 371 was followed by the very first invasion of Lakonia and the liberation of Messenia in 369. After 243 Sparta was weakened by successive attempts, also led by its kings, at necessary social reform and in 195 lost its perioikic dependencies. But under the Roman Empire the city enjoyed a remarkable renascence of prosperity and reverted superficially to the rigid self-discipline of its heyday. Having survived the incursion of the Heruli in A.D. 267, the city was ruined by the Goths in 395, and finally abandoned.
  As Thucydides warned, the power of Sparta should not be gauged from its surviving monuments. Of the settlement all but the foundations of a few Classical houses and some fine Roman mosaic floors is lost irreparably; only seven datable graves, four of about 600 B.C. and three Hellenistic, have been found, although burial was permitted within the settlement area, contrary to normal Greek practice; of the agora not even the location is certain. The acropolis is comparably denuded but at least its chief edifice, the Temple of Athena Chalkioikos, has yielded a crude two-layer stratigraphy. The material associated with part of the earliest altar consisted of a fair quantity of Protogeometric and Geometric pottery, none certainly earlier than the 8th c., and a few bronze votives. The temple was rebuilt in the 6th c. and the richer "Classical" stratum contained, inter alia, pottery, including Panathenaic amphora fragments; objects in bronze, ivory, and lead; the fine late archaic marble statue known as "Leonidas" (in the National Museum of Athens); and a number of bronze plates, some with nails still attached, which may have been used to face the temple and have given rise to the epithet of the goddess. The Hellenistic theater built into the foot of the acropolis is remarkably well preserved.
  Our main evidence for the early settlement and the entire development of Spartan art is derived from careful excavations at the Sanctuary of Ortheia (later assimilated to Artemis) situated on the W bank of the Eurotas in the village of Limnai; it remained throughout its history closely linked to the severe military and educational regime. The earliest known worship centered on an earthen altar with a polar orientation, but toward the end of the 8th c. (on the current interpretation of the stratigraphy) the sacred area was paved with cobbles, enclosed by a peribolos wall, and the altar was given a stone casing; simultaneously a primitive temple, measuring at least 12.5 x 4.5 m, was built on an interpolar axis. About 570 B.C. the entire sanctuary was remodeled, perhaps in consequence of a flood of the Eurotas. The sacred area was enlarged and covered by a layer of sand, the altar refurbished and the first temple replaced. Its successor, built entirely of limestone and measuring ca. 16.75 x 7.5 m, was in the Doric style; the scanty remains of the substructure suggest it was prostyle in antis, and a few gaily painted fragments probably belong to a pedimental group of heraldic lions. The sand, besides being a clearcut stratigraphical feature, has sealed in a treasury of early Greek art from the late 8th to the early 6th c.; dedications continued above the sand into the Roman era. The material includes bronze figurines, mainly of animals, and other bronze objects; over 100,000 lead figurines; some of the earliest and finest figural ivory carvings in Greece; a plethora of mold-made terracotta figurines and masks; finally, and most important for chronology, a continuous pottery series.
  The picture which seems to be emerging indicates that Spartan craftsmen, especially bronzesmiths, shared in the Greek cultural renaissance of the 8th c.; in the 7th, her ivory-carvers were quick to assimilate and adapt oriental types and motifs, but the vase-painters appear backward by comparison with those of Corinth and Athens; in the 6th c. the roles are reversed and the potters and painters, soon followed by the bronze-workers, produce high-quality wares both for domestic and, more especially, foreign consumption. We know from Pausanias the names of several Lakonian craftsmen and some were almost certainly Spartan citizens; Sparta was also the temporary domicile of foreign artists from at least the early 7th c.
  But about 525 B.C. the whole picture changed; imports, which had never been plentiful, ceased--apparently abruptly; so did exports, although painted pottery and superior bronze figurines continued to be made for local use. By the 5th c. Sparta seemed to have acquired the sterile character for which she was praised or blamed by other Greeks; her retention of an iron currency is a symptom, though not a cause, of the change. Not altogether surprisingly the next major alteration to the Sanctuary of Artemis was the construction of a semicircular theater to enable spectators, including foreign tourists, to watch Spartan youths being flogged to death in a painful simulacrum of the initiation rite which had performed so useful a military and political function in a better age.

P. Cartledge, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains 27 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.

http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Per... English
 Perseus Project index
Sparta, Lacedaemon
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/vor?lang=en&f... English
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/vor?lang=en&f... English
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Per... English
Perseus: Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary(1879)
 Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

   (Sparte, Dor. Sparta), also called Lacedaemon (Lakedaimon). The capital of Laconica and the chief city of the Peloponnesus, was situated on the right bank of the Eurotas (Iri), about twenty miles from the sea. It stood on a plain which contained within it several rising grounds and hills. It was bounded on the east by the Eurotas, on the northwest by the small river Oenus (Kelesina), and on the southeast by the small river Tisia (Magula), both of which streams fell into the Eurotas. The plain in which Sparta stood was shut in on the east by Mount Menelaieum, and on the west by Mount Taygetus; whence the city is called by Homer "the hollow Lacedaemon." It was of a circular form, about six miles in circumference, and consisted of several distinct quarters, which were originally separate villages, and which were never united into one regular town. Its site is occupied by the modern villages of Magula and Psykhiko; and the principal modern town in the neighbourhood is Mistra, which lies about two miles to the west on Mount Taygetus.
    During the flourishing times of Greek independence, Sparta was never surrounded by walls, since the bravery of its citizens, and the difficulty of access to it, were supposed to render such defences needless. It was first fortified by the tyrant Nabis; but it did not possess regular walls until the time of the Romans. Sparta, unlike most Greek cities, had no proper Acropolis, but this name was given to one of the steepest hills of the town, on the summit of which stood the Temple of Athene Poliuchus, or Chalcioecus.
    Five distinct quarters of the city are mentioned: (1) Pitane (Pitane), which appears to have been the most important part of the city, and in which was situated the Agora, containing the council-house of the Senate, and the offices of the public magistrates. It was also surrounded by various temples and other public buildings. Of these, the most splendid was the Persian Stoa or portico, originally built of the spoils taken in the Persian War, and enlarged and adorned at later times. A part of the Agora was called the Chorus or dancing-place, in which the Spartan youths performed dances in honour of Apollo. (2) Limnae (Limnai), a suburb of the city, on the banks of the Eurotas, northeast of Pitane, was originally a hollow spot covered with water. (3) Mesoa or Messoa (Mesoa, Messoa), also by the side of the Eurotas, southeast of the preceding, containing the Dromus and the Platanistas, which was a spot nearly surrounded with water, and so called from the plane-trees growing there. (4) Cynosura (Kunosoura), in the southwest of the city, and south of Pitane. (5) Aegidae (Aigeidai), in the northwest of the city, and west of Pitane.
    The two principal streets of Sparta ran from the Agora to the extreme end of the city: these were, (1) Aphetae or Aphetais (Aphetai, Aphetais sc. hodos), extending in a southeasterly direction, past the temple of Dictynna and the tombs of the Eurypontidae; and (2) Skias (Skias), running nearly parallel to the preceding one, but farther to the east, and which derived its name from an ancient place of assembly, of a circular form, called Skias. The most important remains of ancient Sparta are the ruins of the theatre, which was near the Agora.
    Sparta is said to have been founded by Lacedaemon, a son of Zeus and Taygete, who married Sparta, the daughter of Eurotas, and called the city after the name of his wife. His son Amyclas is said to have been the founder of Amyclae, which was for a long time a more important town than Sparta itself. In the mythical period, Argos was the chief city in Peloponnesus, and Sparta is represented as subject to it. Here reigned Menelaus, the younger brother of Agamemnon; and by the marriage of Orestes, the son of Agamemnon, with Hermione, the daughter of Menelaus, the two kingdoms of Argos and Sparta became united. The Dorian conquest of the Peloponnesus, which, according to tradition, took place thirty years after the Trojan War, made Sparta the capital of the country. Laconica fell to the share of the two sons of Aristodemus, Eurysthenes and Procles, who took up their residence at Sparta, and ruled over the kingdom conjointly. The old inhabitants of the country maintained themselves at Amyclae, which was not conquered for a long time. After the complete subjugation of the country we find three distinct classes in the population: the Dorian conquerors, who resided in the capital, and who were called Spartiatae or Spartans; the Perioeci or old Achaean inhabitants, who became tributary to the Spartans, and possessed no political rights; and the Helots, who were also a portion of the old Achaean inhabitants, but were reduced to a state of slavery. From various causes the Spartans became distracted by intestine quarrels, till at length Lycurgus, who belonged to the royal family, was selected by all parties to give a new constitution to the State. The date of Lycurgus is uncertain; but it is impossible to place it later than B.C. 825.
    The constitution of Lycurgus laid the foundation of Sparta's greatness; yet this constitution, traditionally ascribed to Lycurgus, is not to be regarded as wholly due to him. It represents the union of three distinct principles: the monarchical principle was represented by the kings, the aristocracy by the Senate, and the democratical element by the assembly of the people, and subsequently by their representatives, the ephors. The kings had originally to perform the common functions of the kings of the Heroic Age. They were high-priests, judges, and leaders in war; but in all of these departments they were in course of time superseded more or less. As judges they retained only a particular branch of jurisdiction, that referring to the succession of property. As military commanders they were to some extent restricted and watched by commissioners sent by the Senate; the functions of high-priest were curtailed least, perhaps because least obnoxious. In compensation for the loss of power, the kings enjoyed great honours, both during their life and after their death. The Senate (gerousia) consisted of thirty members, one from each obe (oba), all elected except the two kings, who were ex officio members, and represented each his own obe. In their functions they replaced the old council of the nobles as a sort of privy council to the kings, but their power was greater, since the votes of the kings were of no greater weight than those of other senators; they had the right of originating and discussing all measures before they could be submitted to the decision of the popular assembly; they had, in conjunction (later) with the ephors, to watch over the due observance of the laws and institutions; and they were judges in all criminal cases, without being bound by any written code. For all this they were not responsible, holding their office for life.
    But with all these powers the elders formed no real aristocracy. They were not chosen either for property qualification or for noble birth. The Senate was open to the poorest citizen, who during sixty years had been obedient to the laws and zealous in the performance of his duties. The mass of the people--that is, the Spartans of pure Doric descent --formed the sovereign power of the State. The popular assembly consisted of every Spartan of thirty years of age, and of unblemished character; only those were excluded who had not the means of contributing their portion to the syssitia. They met at stated times to decide on all important questions brought before them, after a previous discussion in the Senate. They had no right of amendment, but only that of simple approval or rejection, which was given in the rudest form possible, by shouting. The popular assembly, however, had neither frequent nor very important occasions for directly exerting their sovereign power. Their chief activity consisted in delegating it; hence arose the importance of the ephors, who were the representatives of the popular element of the constitution. The five ephors answer in many points to the Roman tribunes of the people. Their appointment is included by Herodotus among the institutions of Lycurgus, but it is probable that Aristotle is right in dating these later, from the reign of Theopompus. Their appointment was perhaps a concession to the people, at first as overseers of the markets and as magistrates who might check illegal oppression by kings or great men. Subsequently they absorbed most of the power in the State. To Lycurgus was ascribed also a prohibition to use written laws, or to have any coinage but iron: but these traditions must refer to later customs, since there were neither coins nor written laws in Greece as early as Lycurgus.
    With reference to their subjects, the few Spartans formed a most decided aristocracy. On the conquest of Peloponnesus by the Dorians, part of the ancient inhabitants of the country, under name of the Perioeci (Perioikoi), were allowed indeed to retain their personal liberty, but lost all civil rights, and were obliged to pay to the State a rent for the land that was left them. But a great part of the old inhabitants were reduced to a state of perfect slavery, different from that of the slaves of Athens and Rome, and more similar to the villanage of the feudal ages. These were called Helots (heilotai). They were allotted, with patches of land, to individual members of the ruling class. They tilled the land, and paid a fixed rent to their masters, not, as Perioeci, to the State. The Spartans formed, as it were, an army of invaders in an enemy's country; their city was a camp, and every man a soldier. At Sparta the citizen only existed for the State; he had no interest but the State's, and no property but what belonged to the State. It was a fundamental principle of the constitution that all citizens were entitled to the enjoyment of an equal portion of the common property. This was done in order to secure to the commonwealth a large number of citizens and soldiers free from labour for their sustenance, and able to devote their whole time to warlike exercises, in order thus to keep up the ascendency of Sparta over her Perioeci and Helots. The Spartans were to be warriors, and nothing but warriors. Therefore, not only all mechanical labour was thought to degrade them; not only was husbandry despised and neglected, and commerce prevented, or at least impeded, by prohibitive laws and by the use of iron money; but also the nobler arts and sciences were so effectually stifled that Sparta is a blank in the history of the arts and literature of Greece. The State took care of a Spartan from his cradle to his grave, and superintended his education in the minutest points; and this was not confined to his youth, but extended throughout his whole life. The syssitia, or, as they were called at Sparta, phiditia, the common meals, may be regarded as an educational institution; for at these meals subjects of general interest were discussed and political questions debated. The youths and boys used to eat separately from the men, in their own divisions.
    Sparta gradually extended her sway over the greater part of the Peloponnesus. In B.C. 743 the Spartans attacked Messenia, and after a war of twenty years subdued this country, 723. In 685 the Messenians again took up arms, but at the end of seventeen years were again completely subdued; and their country from this time forward became an integral portion of Laconia. After the close of the Second Messenian War the Spartans continued their conquests in Peloponnesus. They defeated the Tegeans, and wrested the district of Thyreae from the Argives. At the time of the Persian invasion they were confessedly the first people in Greece, and to them was granted by unanimous consent the chief command in the war. But after the final defeat of the Persians the haughtiness of Pausanias disgusted most of the Greek States, particularly the Ionians, and led them to transfer the supremacy to Athens (477). From this time the power of Athens steadily increased, and Sparta possessed little influence outside of the Peloponnesus. The Spartans, however, made several attempts to check the rising greatness of Athens, and their jealousy of the latter led at length to the Peloponnesian War (431). This war ended in the overthrow of Athens, and the restoration of the supremacy of Sparta over the rest of Greece (404). But the Spartans did not retain this supremacy more than thirty years. Their decisive defeat by the Thebans under Epaminondas at the battle of Leuctra (371) gave the Spartan power a shock from which it never recovered; and the restoration of the Messenians to their country two years afterwards completed the humiliation of Sparta. Thrice was the Spartan territory invaded by the Thebans, and the Spartan women saw for the first time the watch-fires of an enemy's camp. The Spartans now finally lost their supremacy over Greece, but no other Greek state succeeded to their power; and about thirty years afterwards the greater part of Greece was obliged to yield to Philip of Macedon. The Spartans, however, kept aloof from the Macedonian conqueror, and refused to take part in the Asiatic expedition of his son, Alexander the Great.
    Under this later Macedonian king the power of Sparta declined still further. The simple institutions of Lycurgus were abandoned, and little by little luxury crept into the State. The number of citizens diminished, and the landed property became vested in a few families. Agis endeavoured to restore the ancient institutions of Lycurgus, but he perished in the attempt (240). Cleomenes III., who began to reign 236, was more successful. He succeeded in putting the ephors to death, and overthrowing the existing government (225); and he then made a redistribution of the landed property, and augmented the number of the Spartan citizens by admitting some of the Perioeci to this honour. His reforms infused new blood into the State, and for a short time he carried on war with success against the Achaeans. But Aratus, the general of the Achaeans, called in the assistance of Antigonus Doson, the king of Macedonia, who defeated Cleomenes at the decisive battle of Sellasia (221), and followed up his success by the capture of Sparta. Sparta now sank into insignificance, and was ruled by a succession of native tyrants, till at length it was compelled to abolish its peculiar institutions, and to join the Achaean League. Shortly afterwards it fell, with the rest of Greece, under the Roman power.

This text is cited Sep 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Per... English
Perseus: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)
 Beazley Archive Dictionary
http://www.beazley.ox.ac.uk/CGPrograms/Dict/ASP/Op... English
The Beazley Archive
 Educational institutions WebPages
http://www.csun.edu/~hcfll004/sparta.html English  
Materials for the Study of Ancient Sparta, California State University,
http://uts.cc.utexas.edu/~sparta/ English  
University of Texas
http://emuseum.mankato.msus.edu/archaeology/sites/... English
Archaeological sites, Minessota State University
http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/GREECE/SPARTA.HTM English
  City of Laconia in southern Peloponnese.
  Sparta, also called Lacedaemon, was the capital of the province of Laconia in southern Peloponnese and one of the leading cities of Greece. In the Homeric world, Laconia was the kingdom of Menelaus, brother of Agamemnon (himself king of Argos, or of Mycenae) and husband of Helen. At the beginning of his Histories of the Persian Wars, Herodotus, talking about the relationship between Croesus, king of Lydia in the middle of the VIth century B. C., and Greece, presents Sparta and Athens as the two most powerful cities of Greece, Sparta leading the Dorians, described as a migrant people eventually settled in Peloponnese, and Athens the Ionians, presented as a people that always lived in the land (the autochtons as they liked to call themselves, that is, the ones born from the land itself).
  Most of the history of the Vth and IVth centuries, leading eventually to the rise of the Macedonian Empire, may be viewed as a struggle between Athens and Sparta for leadership over Greece. The Peloponnesian War, whose chronicle makes up Thucydides' Histories, was the climax of this struggle.
  In the time of Socrates and Plato, Sparta enjoyed a rather unique constitution and way of life which fascinated, or at least questioned, many Greeks, including Plato and above all Xenophon. This fascination, under various forms, lasted till our day. The origin of Sparta's constitution was ascribed to Lycurgus, a half legendary lawgiver who, if he ever existed, should have lived around the Xth century B. C. Lycurgus was supposed to have received the constitution of Sparta, a document called the Rhetra, from Apollo himself at Delphi. But modern historians doubt Lycurgus ever existed and would rather ascribe the origin of the constitution that existed in Sparta in the Vth century to the second half of the VIIth century B. C.
  No matter what, the most striking features of this constitution were:
  •Its aristocratic, or more properly, oligarchic, and war-geared regime, with a limited class of full-right citizens, the “Equals” (homoioi in Greek), whose role was mostly to defend the city in case of war, and among whom were chosen each year five ephors in charge of most of the day to day administration of the city, under the supervision of a “Council of the Elders” (gerousia), a body of 28 citizens aged over 60 elected for life by the assembly of the citizens by acclamation. The city also had two hereditary kings from two different families, endowed with mostly religious functions but also involved in political life through their membership in the Council of the Elders, one of whom was chosen as commander in chief in case of war.
  •Its reliance on a form of slavery for survival: the citizens were not supposed to work or cultivate the earth. This role was attributed to a special class of enslaved people known as the “Helots”, mostly made up of local people subjected by the Spartans, especially neighboring Messenians. In between the Equals and the Helots, was a population of half-grade citizens enjoying freedom but not citizenship, living in the countryside and surrounding villages as farmers, craftsmen or merchants, and participating in the army in separate units.
  •Its “communist”-like system of ownership: land and Helots were owned by the state, not by the citizens. Land was alloted among citizens in lots called “kleroi”, which were not inherited, but were supposed to go back to the state at the death of their “owner” to be reassigned to another citizen (though, over time, the system was more and more often bypassed and inequality eventually prevailed among the “Equals”).
  •Its special program of education for the citizens, the agoge, which lasted from the age of 7 to the age of 30 in common quarters under the supervision of the state, and was a prerequisite to enjoy the rights of a citizen. It focused primarily on physical education and the art of war, but there were also specific provisions for women and strict rules about marriage and procreation. It included occasional raids against the Helots in which future citizens were allowed to kill slaves, to prepare them for war in actual conditions. The last step of this education, reserved to the best ones, was known as the cryptia (from the Greek word meaning “hidden”, “secret”) and consisted in living alone for one year in the countryside and neighboring moutains without being seen by anyone but with the right to kill Helots. Its daily common meals, known as syssitia, reserved to citizens but for them mandatory, and to which they were required to bring their share lest they lose their citizenship.
  All in all, the terms that best describe Sparta are austerty, frugality, discipline: the city was never adorned with beautiful temples (at the beginning of his history of the war between Sparta and Athens, Thucydides remarks that, were Sparta to be destroyed, future generations centuries later, judging by the remains of its buildings, would never imagine how powerful the city was, whereas were the same fate to happen to Athens, by the same criterion, one might judge it much more powerful it ever was !); it never fostered great poets and writers, nor great orators, as did Athens, and was rather known for its concise style (hence the word “laconic”, from the name of Sparta's district, Laconia).

Bernard Suzanne (page last updated 1999), ed.
This extract is cited July 2003 from the Plato and his dialogues URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks.

http://plato-dialogues.org/tools/loc/sparta.htm English
http://www.sikyon.com/Sparta/sparta_eg.html English Greek  
http://www.users.globalnet.co.uk/~loxias/sparta.ht... English  
The Classics Pages, by Andrew Wilson.
 Non-profit organizations WebPages
http://www.users.globalnet.co.uk/~loxias/sparta.ht... English
The Classics Pages, by Andrew Wilson.
 The Catholic Encyclopedia
  A celebrated town of the Peloponnesus, mentioned several times under this name or under that of Lacedaemon in the Bible. Letters were exchanged between Onias I, high priest of the Jews, and Arius I, King of Sparta, about the years 309 or 300 B. C. Arius, who sought to maintain the independence of his country against the Syrian successors of Alexander by creating a diversion against them in Palestine, pretended to have found a writing relative to the Spartans, showing that they themselves and the Jews were two peoples, brothers both descending from Abraham. This assertion has little foundation, although perhaps there had been such a tradition.
  Christianity was introduced into Sparta at an early date. In the beginning suffragan of Corinth, then of Patras, the see was made a metropolis in 1082 and numbered several suffragan bishoprics, of which there were three in the fifteenth century. In 1833; after the Peloponnesus had been included in the Kingdom of Greece, Sparta was reduced to the rank of a simple bishopric.
  When the region fell into the power of the Franks, Honorius III established there in 1217 a Latin see which by degrees became a titular and finally disappeared.

S. Vailhe, ed.
Transcribed by: Douglas J. Potter
This extract is cited June 2003 from The Catholic Encyclopedia, New Advent online edition URL below.

http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14209b.htm English
The Catholic Encyclopedia (1908)
 Greek & Roman Geography (ed. William Smith)
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Per... English
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD)

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